Panope

Anchor Geekdom

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49 minutes ago, Russell Brown said:

Maybe I don't understand he term "tandem anchoring". Both anchor lines were led to the bow and the boat was generally between the anchors. Panope just did a video, as I now see, but I haven't watched it yet.  Panope has led me to a new world of anchoring... and it's a lot easier on my back.

 I believe that’s known, in anchor geekeryspeak [ :-) ], as a “Bahamian moor”, if I’m understanding your description correctly.  Or maybe it’s a “double bow offset”?!  Anyway, doesn’t sound like a tandem set up, from what I understand.

Per pics here: https://www.oceannavigator.com/anchoring-techniques/

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56 minutes ago, Russell Brown said:

Maybe I don't understand he term "tandem anchoring". Both anchor lines were led to the bow and the boat was generally between the anchors. Panope just did a video, as I now see, but I haven't watched it yet.  Panope has led me to a new world of anchoring... and it's a lot easier on my back.

Ah. So you have been lying to two anchors, not in tandem. Watch the video, it makes everything clear.

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The Tandem video was very enlightening. I have considered in the past that I would deploy a tandem anchor if I was caught out in weather but this has turned me off of the idea.

 

 

 

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5 hours ago, Jud - s/v Sputnik said:

 I believe that’s known, in anchor geekeryspeak [ :-) ], as a “Bahamian moor”, if I’m understanding your description correctly.  Or maybe it’s a “double bow offset”?!  Anyway, doesn’t sound like a tandem set up, from what I understand.

Per pics here: https://www.oceannavigator.com/anchoring-techniques/

I've never seen that nomenclature. I suspect they just made it up, as we often have to when there is no common agreement.

For clarity, I refer to what they call double bow in line as an in-line tandem. More commonly, it is just called a tandem. What they refer to as double bow offset I just call V anchoring. Several magazine editors have accepted that and I was never questioned about it. But English and nomenclature are fluid.

A Bahamian moor is then logically a subset of V-tandem.

Another subdivision, and the reason I coined the term, is that it can make sense to place two anchors on the same main rode, with a sub-rode splitting into a V of either near zero length (see piggyback, post 793) or much longer (10-30 feet) (V-tandem?). These methods are both used on platforms, by the Navy, and by sailors.

So there are really 4 variations on a V from the bow, all of which are used, some for oil rigs. That makes for confusing nomenclature. Suggestions for clarification are welcome.

---

BTW, setting the double bow offset with equal rode lengths, as shown, is a great way to foul anchors. One of the rodes should be shorter so that they don't drag into each other if one gives.

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The "Bahamian moor" nomenclature is quite common and has been used for many decades. In the Bahamas, there are some serious tide reversals in some of the cuts, and not much room. The classic Bahamian moor is two anchors set at 180 deg, and active and a passive depending on tide, but the name has come to include two anchors set on two rodes, which might be partial (shackled together on the bottom) or complete (to the bow). 

I'd think that shackling them together close to one of the shanks would help the roll out problem, but might be the cause of many fouling problems. The farther anchor's rode necessarily must cross the near anchor if there is much veering. Like tandem anchoring, you'd still have the far anchor undiminished in holding power. Perhaps it should be the big one. 

But: if you are willing to have say two 35 lbs anchors and the rode and windlass to handle them, how much better off would you be with a 70 lb?

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Second the common use of ‘Bahamian Moor’ for opposed anchors. I have never heard another term. (Tandem is in-line, as far as I always knew.)

Current sets something like 4kt or better in the pictured channel

9348311C-6A57-47A7-8EC4-BFCF83B602D3.jpeg

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13 minutes ago, DDW said:

The "Bahamian moor" nomenclature is quite common and has been used for many decades. In the Bahamas, there are some serious tide reversals in some of the cuts, and not much room. The classic Bahamian moor is two anchors set at 180 deg, and active and a passive depending on tide, but the name has come to include two anchors set on two rodes, which might be partial (shackled together on the bottom) or complete (to the bow). 

I'd think that shackling them together close to one of the shanks would help the roll out problem, but might be the cause of many fouling problems. The farther anchor's rode necessarily must cross the near anchor if there is much veering. Like tandem anchoring, you'd still have the far anchor undiminished in holding power. Perhaps it should be the big one. 

But: if you are willing to have say two 35 lbs anchors and the rode and windlass to handle them, how much better off would you be with a 70 lb?

The simpler the better.

Sometimes though two anchors are good to reduce swing room for shorter periods of anchoring, I used it to good effect for a month in one bay on a 57 footer in the Carrib. I'd really recommend being able to see both anchors and rode.

Once in deep water in an outer anchorage the anchors weren't visible.  I got three full 360 degree wraps  that were quite hard to untangle even though I thought the wind had been consistently from one quarter of the compass . If it had been an emergency we would have had to  jettison both sets of ground tackle to leave.

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A type of veering we have not considered is the regular, cyclical veering known as yawing. Many boats are bad for this, and even moderate cases can halve anchor holding by increasing rode tension and wiggling the anchor. A V-anchor arraignment stops this.

 

An advantage of joining the two rodes away from the roller and NOT terminating both rodes in the locker is that they don't tangle if the boat swings. I've watched my boat circle more than a dozen times in a tidal creek without a tangle.

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My boat yaws quite actively but it only seems to swing about 10' on either side of zero with a period of about 60 seconds. At my typical ~3:1 rode length of 75 feet, that's only about +/- 7.5 degrees variation. I'd be amazed if that small amount of swing at that slow a frequency caused any significant loss of holding power with my 80 lb Mantus. In fact, in the mud bottoms around here, I could see it increasing holding power over time by helping the anchor to bury deeper.

Only testing would tell, of course. but I'm not sweating it in the meantime.

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My boat dances quite a bit in breeze. Before I added 200ft of chain it wasn't uncommon for me to be yawing 30°+ side to side at ~1.5kts. With the chain it's a bit more tame.

I'm planning on making a riding sail to stick on one side of the split backstay to calm things down.

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On 11/26/2015 at 1:19 AM, Whinging Pom said:

Please explain where the tide changes direction instantly at 3.5 Kts. Thank you.

Salt water tide change - about these speed in both directions (but I’m not sure it’s exactly a 3.5 kt instant change :-) )

And - no one anchors here :-). But you asked... 

 

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On 1/12/2021 at 12:39 PM, Russell Brown said:

Maybe I don't understand he term "tandem anchoring". Both anchor lines were led to the bow and the boat was generally between the anchors. Panope just did a video, as I now see, but I haven't watched it yet.  Panope has led me to a new world of anchoring... and it's a lot easier on my back.

afaik, "tandem anchoring" is supposed to mean both anchors on the same rode, but i might be wrong...

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4 hours ago, IStream said:

My boat yaws quite actively but it only seems to swing about 10' on either side of zero with a period of about 60 seconds. At my typical ~3:1 rode length of 75 feet, that's only about +/- 7.5 degrees variation. I'd be amazed if that small amount of swing at that slow a frequency caused any significant loss of holding power with my 80 lb Mantus. In fact, in the mud bottoms around here, I could see it increasing holding power over time by helping the anchor to bury deeper.

Only testing would tell, of course. but I'm not sweating it in the meantime.

It would not. I could not measure loss <30 degrees and the increase in rode tension is small. The trouble starts at about 45 degrees total and become serious starting at about 60 degrees. But I've seen boats zig more than 100 degrees. I remember taking pictures of a bad one from a kayak; I had to really paddle to keep up! He ended up on the beach a month later.

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1 hour ago, climenuts said:

My boat dances quite a bit in breeze. Before I added 200ft of chain it wasn't uncommon for me to be yawing 30°+ side to side at ~1.5kts. With the chain it's a bit more tame.

I'm planning on making a riding sail to stick on one side of the split backstay to calm things down.

Look at V-riding sails. FAR more effective and much more stable in high winds, in my experience. A diamond over an elevated boom is also very effective, perhaps even better.

Riding Sails.

This one is from Banner Bay. I tested one, very nice, very effective.

5a.+fin+delta+riding+sail.jpg

 

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7 minutes ago, thinwater said:

Look at V-riding sails. FAR more effective and much more stable in high winds, in my experience. A diamond over an elevated boom is also very effective, perhaps even better.

Riding Sails.

This one is from Banner Bay. I tested one, very nice, very effective.

5a.+fin+delta+riding+sail.jpg

 

From what I've read the asymmetric options are much more stable than the delta's or V's. While very effective at re-centering the boat the V's and Delta's need the boat to have yaw to develop a righting force which lets the boat continue to oscillate at a reduced magnitude.

The asymmetric options which are basically one side of the V's keep the boat balanced with a slight yaw to one side when cross sheeted.

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2 hours ago, climenuts said:

My boat dances quite a bit in breeze. Before I added 200ft of chain it wasn't uncommon for me to be yawing 30°+ side to side at ~1.5kts. With the chain it's a bit more tame.

I wonder if the "Winch Bridle" technique would help?  From the Ocean Navigator article mentioned above:

anchor3.jpg.6c06f23ccc230458411cb5f7ebd2e137.jpg

Might get fouled when wind and current go slack?

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I've used that technique.  Proa has it right, it works like a charm until the wind dies.  I'm my case, it took a while to untangle the mess after the wind died overnight

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On 1/14/2021 at 7:15 AM, climenuts said:

My boat dances quite a bit in breeze. Before I added 200ft of chain it wasn't uncommon for me to be yawing 30°+ side to side at ~1.5kts. With the chain it's a bit more tame.

I'm planning on making a riding sail to stick on one side of the split backstay to calm things down.

A storm jib can do double duty as a riding sail.

Although not often practical most sailboats are totally docile when anchored from the stern.

Anchoring bridles are also really useful for getting the bow into the swell to reduce the roll. Use a chain claw that falls off freely rather than hitching the rope to the chain makes retrieval much simpler.

 

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Unless it's a charter boat one to one scope not sure yawing will have any effect on your hook other than maybe chaffe on the snubber.  If the boat sails on the hook for sure, but that's why you never anchor next to cats...

 

Our bow tends to blow down in gusts, used to use a bridle from the bow hause holes but it doesn't ride well, have always went off the bow roller since and it much happier that way.

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22 hours ago, SASSAFRASS said:

that's why you never anchor next to cats...

Y’know, I get really tired of leaner owners dragging out the same lame tropes when my personal observation over these last years is that it is the leaners doing all the hunting at anchor. Y’all get all the current effects and none of you have any idea WTF a bridle is. It frightens me especially to be next to a Hunterbenelina; holy fuckfarts those things swing like a 60s couple.

Dont throw stones from your glass house. 

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2 hours ago, Max Rockatansky said:

Y’know, I get really tired of leaner owners dragging out the same lame tropes when my personal observation over these last years is that it is the leaners doing all the hunting at anchor. Y’all get all the current effects and none of you have any idea WTF a bridle is. It frightens me especially to be next to a Hunterbenelina; holy fuckfarts those things swing like a 60s couple.

Dont throw stones from your glass house. 

Yep. I swear I've had some Med charters where we've done more sailing in the anchorage than the entire rest of the trip.

Blasting madly around the anchorage during evening thunderstorms and then motoring in a flat calm to the next anchorage to repeat.

I put it down to dock queen windage and crappy ground tackle.

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6 hours ago, Panope said:

 

I'm sure the video is great Steve, as usual, but 53+ minutes long!?  Sorry but TLDW, only for the super dedicated.  Is there a short version?

P.S.  Watching at two times normal speed works rather well.

double_speed.jpg.0fa7ace04429ee15a9c577e1f1f805ab.jpg

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3 hours ago, Max Rockatansky said:

Y’know, I get really tired of leaner owners dragging out the same lame tropes when my personal observation over these last years is that it is the leaners doing all the hunting at anchor. Y’all get all the current effects and none of you have any idea WTF a bridle is. It frightens me especially to be next to a Hunterbenelina; holy fuckfarts those things swing like a 60s couple.

Dont throw stones from your glass house. 

LOL!

My cat is probably the LEAST active swinger when I use a proper bridle, though I notice many cats are now being rigged with stupid-short under tramp bridles (the legs should be attached to the bows and be greater in length than the beam , which they are not). And those are probably the boats he (perhaps correctly) noticed. Cats with boards up can also swing.

I actually measured one AWB with a dinghy on the bow and a rope rode swinging though 130 degrees. I was taking sites from a kayak with a hand bearing compass. It was hard to keep up with him.

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1 hour ago, ProaSailor said:

I'm sure the video is great Steve, as usual, but 53+ minutes long!?  Sorry but TLDW, only for the super dedicated.  Is there a short version?

P.S.  Watching at two times normal speed works rather well.

double_speed.jpg.0fa7ace04429ee15a9c577e1f1f805ab.jpg

Anchor GEEKDOM!!

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5 hours ago, Max Rockatansky said:

Y’know, I get really tired of leaner owners dragging out the same lame tropes when my personal observation over these last years is that it is the leaners doing all the hunting at anchor. Y’all get all the current effects and none of you have any idea WTF a bridle is. It frightens me especially to be next to a Hunterbenelina; holy fuckfarts those things swing like a 60s couple.

Dont throw stones from your glass house. 

All in jest, there seems to be no correlation between scary neighbors at anchor and the boats they are on.

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I ran a Baltic 51 thru the Med for a year - NO anchor windlass, so had to use rope, short chain & lighter anchors. Almost always in even moderately popular anchorages I'd set two anchors to limit swing. Had 40 lb bruce as primary, 2 x 40 lb Danforths as 2ndaries. Would set primary to prevailing wind, then take out 2nd on dinghy for expected wind shift or neighbors. This did not add much effort once a good technique/storage system was figured out. And remember, anchoring 'space requirements" in the Med are completely different than US. 

   Actually had 3 anchors down once on the Istrian coast for a Bora which during passage would have major wind shift (think hurricane). Turned out very good, as at zero dark hundred a German powerboat started dragging, got their windlass breaker tripped & crashed into us. I was able to just hand them the slack 3rd anc & get them off me & securely anchored through the rest of the night. Went over in the morning & figgered out that they had borrowed daddy's boat & did not know of the breaker at all. It was on lower control station & they had only been using flybridge controls. Cheap bastards only gave me one bottle of wine.   

   In the Med, if two boats contact at night, they just raft up - no one re-anchors 

The rare times I had full twists in the rodes it was pretty simple to cast off all of on line into the water & run the bitter end around to un twist. Or tie a fender to end & throw it all over, pick up one, come back & pick up 2nd. Or use dink to pick up.

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1 hour ago, Panope said:

Anchor GEEKDOM!!

!!!

When I write, I usually get reader comments both that there should have been more data, and that I dug too far into data (just wanted a quick answer). In the end, the editor decides how far down the rabbit hole to go. Personally, I love your work, and If I want to scan forward, obviously I can.

A short answer on anchors or anchoring... is a superficial answer that is wrong a good part of the time. That's just the way it is!

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Hi guys, to those of you who have a Spade, what is the diameter of the hole at the front of the anchor? Can you pass an 8mm retrieval line through it?

Also, for a Pogo 36 the Spade website recommends the S60 (9.5Kg). The Pogo is a 10.9m and 4000 kg boat, isn't that too light? They made a mistake?

Thanks!

Spade.jpg

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52 minutes ago, Mais78 said:

Also, for a Pogo 36 the Spade website recommends the S60 (9.5Kg). The Pogo is a 10.9m and 4000 kg boat, isn't that too light? They made a mistake?

The Pogo is a light boat.  4000kg is about what a 30-footer weighed in 1970.  But it's also a much more bulky boat than most 1970s 36-footers.  

I have never really understood how to calculate anchor loads.  I resume that it is some combination of boat weight, windage and expected motion ... but I have only the haziest idea of how they interact.   For example, a boat barely floating, with almost nothing above the water, would be almost immune from wind forces, so loads would come from waves or current.  Or a very light boat might have lots of windage, generating a massive load in high winds.  Or a boat which sailed a lot o anchor could generate huge shock loads.

I presume that people much wiser than me have researched and calculated some of these issues.  Does anyone know of any technically-reputable publications?  Or are anchor sizes just being decided on a trial-and-error basis?

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Yeah, the Pogo is actually 3800 Kg but I am rounding up for full cruising displacement. This is the sizing chart from the UK distributor of the Spade. According to the table the S60/9.5Kg is good up until 7.5m of boat length and 3500 Kg. The Pogo 36 exceeds both measures.

I would not assume that they did any complicated test for all the boats in their database. Maybe S60 because the Pogo has a very shallow and flat hull? 

559817930_Spade2.thumb.jpg.fa5801a0af1b73f8db2bca05623d5a75.jpg

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No perfect science on anchor sizing. 

An S60 Spade will work fine - Until it doesn't.

If I had a Pogo 36, I would want an S80.  Minimum.

Steve

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Thanks Steve, the yard puts the S80 on the Pogo 44 as standard, while on the 36 standard is the Fob Rock 14kg, but I would like to put either a Spade or a Rocna.

Do you happen to know the diameter of the hole in the Spade?

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8 hours ago, Mais78 said:

Hi guys, to those of you who have a Spade, what is the diameter of the hole at the front of the anchor? Can you pass an 8mm retrieval line through it?

Also, for a Pogo 36 the Spade website recommends the S60 (9.5Kg). The Pogo is a 10.9m and 4000 kg boat, isn't that too light? They made a mistake?

Thanks!

Spade.jpg

On 1/16/2021 at 12:31 PM, Panope said:

Anchor GEEKDOM!!

Length and area matte more than displacement.  I've measured the rode tension on many boats, and it is mostly about projected area (weight seems like it could tug more, but is also dams waves).

 

I think I would go up one size, and I'm a multihull guy that likes minimal ground tackle. I had a Manson 35 on my 34', 4500 kg catamaran, and it was just barely enough in soft mud. The rode also matters. If all-chain (I'm guessing not) you can go lighter, but if you use rope to save weight (smart on a Pogo), then a few more pounds in the anchor won't be wrong.

 

You can also consider an Alloy Spade or Excel (up one size) if you will be anchoring exclusively in good sand and mud.

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You are right, not all chain. I am getting 25m of 8mm chain and 30m of 14mm rope. And It is mostly rocks and poseidonia  around my home port.

Would you get the Spade over the Rocna? Which works best on a shorter scope? The Med goes deep quite quickly.

Thanks  

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Aluminum Spade is what we heave used on our boat, which weighs 11,000# fully loaded. It’s held in 60+ knot gusts. 

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9 hours ago, Mais78 said:

Thanks Steve, the yard puts the S80 on the Pogo 44 as standard, while on the 36 standard is the Fob Rock 14kg, but I would like to put either a Spade or a Rocna.

Do you happen to know the diameter of the hole in the Spade?

Tripping line holes in both of my SPADE anchors are imperfect circles. 

That said, a 7/16" drill bit will pass through the hole in the S60.

Oddly, the hole in the larger S100 is somewhat smaller.  13/32" drill bit is the largest that will pass.

The S80 that I owned briefly, was not measured prior to trading it away (for the S60).

Steve

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4 hours ago, Panope said:

Tripping line holes in both of my SPADE anchors are imperfect circles. 

That said, a 7/16" drill bit will pass through the hole in the S60.

Oddly, the hole in the larger S100 is somewhat smaller.  13/32" drill bit is the largest that will pass.

The S80 that I owned briefly, was not measured prior to trading it away (for the S60).

Steve

Thanks Steve, seems like an 8mm rope should pass through the hole of both. How would you set up the tripping line? Line directly through the hole or a shackle through the hole and line attached to it?

May I know why you traded away the S80 for the S60?

thanks!

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The hole is not very smooth, so kinda unfriendly for the line.  But it will only be pulled tight once in a lifetime, so keep it simple - tie it on with a bowline.

Traded S80 for S60 because a friend needed a bigger anchor and I needed smaller for testing against other small anchors.

I originally picked up the S80 on Craigslist for 60 or 70 bucks (seller did not know what he had). Was a bit corroded.  My friends S60 was brand new.

We both won. 

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Thanks Steve. Great trade!!

How do you find the Spade on a shorter than ideal scope (less than 3:1)? Not unusual in the Med when the sea becomes deep very quickly.

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3 hours ago, Mais78 said:

Thanks Steve. Great trade!!

How do you find the Spade on a shorter than ideal scope (less than 3:1)? Not unusual in the Med when the sea becomes deep very quickly.

All of my 2.5:1 testing was conducted with heavy (BBB) all chain rode in 26 feet depth, with no "higher power" holding testing, and only at the "sandy mud" and "loose sand and gravel" test sites.  

That said, the Spade (and some other anchors) set and reset perfectly at 2.5:1.

Steve

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Thanks Steve. Had read somewhere that the Rocna performs better than Spade with a shorter scope.

I just spoke to the company seeking clarification regarding their database: they stand by their claim that the S60 is the one to go for the Pogo 36. They say the most important factor is the weight of the boat. They also said to ignore the sizing chart that says the S60 is good up to 3,500kg, they say it is fit for purpose until 5,000 kg. 
Still 9.5kg fees small for 36 feet. One side of me wants to keep boat light and get S60, other side the S80 to be safer.

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2 hours ago, Mais78 said:

Thanks Steve. Had read somewhere that the Rocna performs better than Spade with a shorter scope.

I just spoke to the company seeking clarification regarding their database: they stand by their claim that the S60 is the one to go for the Pogo 36. They say the most important factor is the weight of the boat. They also said to ignore the sizing chart that says the S60 is good up to 3,500kg, they say it is fit for purpose until 5,000 kg. 
Still 9.5kg fees small for 36 feet. One side of me wants to keep boat light and get S60, other side the S80 to be safer.

In my "soft mud" test at 5:1 scope (mostly rope rode), the S60 dragged repeatedly at less than 300 lbs.

If you can be sure that your anchor will ALWAYS be in a perfect substrate, with lots of scope, and no foreign debris, then a tiny anchor is great.

Personally, I can NEVER be sure of all that, so I carry a big anchor.

Steve

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3 hours ago, Panope said:

In my "soft mud" test at 5:1 scope (mostly rope rode), the S60 dragged repeatedly at less than 300 lbs.

If you can be sure that your anchor will ALWAYS be in a perfect substrate, with lots of scope, and no foreign debris, then a tiny anchor is great.

Personally, I can NEVER be sure of all that, so I carry a big anchor.

Steve

I think you have done the boating community a great service.  Do you switch anchors depending on the bottom or go with your favorite and see if it will work?

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On the rare occasions when an anchor does not set, moving to a different spot (deeper, over a bit, etc) always has worked.  So, no real need to switch.

(I cannot recall the Spade S100 not setting or dragging - in real use or testing -  EVER.)

Other, more worldly cruisers would know better, but I believe my cruising area (salish sea) has somewhat easy anchoring conditions: Good holding, protected anchorages, light prevailing summertime winds, virtually zero thunder storms.

There can be a LOT of weed in the shallows.

Steve

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Agreed with the easy conditions in the PNW. I haven't quite figured out if the easy conditions breeds incompetent anchoring or if incompetent anchorers just don't survive in other parts of the world.

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Its all easy peasy until that squall comes through the anchorage and thins the herd.

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On 1/18/2021 at 2:49 PM, Panope said:

On the rare occasions when an anchor does not set, moving to a different spot (deeper, over a bit, etc) always has worked.  So, no real need to switch.

(I cannot recall the Spade S100 not setting or dragging - in real use or testing -  EVER.)

Other, more worldly cruisers would know better, but I believe my cruising area (salish sea) has somewhat easy anchoring conditions: Good holding, protected anchorages, light prevailing summertime winds, virtually zero thunder storms.

There can be a LOT of weed in the shallows.

Steve

Anchoring is like real estate, location, location, location.  I have extensively cruised the Northeast of the US since a little kid. Growing up and on my prior boat, we always used a CQR and lots of scope. We always dug it in, backing down on it with full RPM. If it didn't set, we would reset the anchor, about 10-20% of the time.  Weathered many a squall, current changes and wind shifts. We never dragged.  Not once in over 40 years.  Once can't deny the experience, but it is limited to the places we anchored. One can't deny the data that you have generated either.  My current boat came with Bruce that was a bit undersized and a big Fortress. I chose a Rocna Vulcan in part based on your testing.  I have only used it a couple of times and was very happy. It did set faster than my CQR experience. 

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I think when you include cqr, never dragged and 40 years all in the same shpeel you will get a little skepticism.

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