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Sapphire Girl

Clipper wreck report

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12 minutes ago, Sapphire Girl said:

Thanks for those links. Lots of reading to do for the full information about the wind shift, but the summary is pretty clear:

Quote

Safety lessons:

  • CV24 was not safely manned or operated as the skipper was the only qualified, professional seafarer on board, and there was no dedicated navigator with responsibility for passage planning and execution

  • there was not an effective plan for CV24’s coastal passage along the Cape Peninsula and, when unexpectedly close inshore, the skipper became distracted from navigation by the requirement to supervise the crew on deck. It was also difficult for the crew to monitor the yacht’s position when on deck

  • company risk assessments, operational procedures and taking opportunities to learn from previous groundings could all have provided a higher level of safety management on board Clipper Ventures’ yacht fleet, particularly when operating in remote and often harsh environments

Recommendations

Safety recommendations have been made to the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (2018/116) and Clipper Ventures plc (2018/117 and 2017/118) intended to improve the standards of safety management and conduct of navigation in the Clipper yacht fleet.

 

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1 hour ago, Sapphire Girl said:

They shouldn’t have got so close to the Coast in the first place.

That's the general idea! No depth sounder at the helm? No direction to stay on a heading?

 

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24 minutes ago, SCANAS said:

That's the general idea! No depth sounder at the helm? No direction to stay on a heading?

More than half the fleet were caught out by the shift.

Quote

During this coastal passage, there was a significant shift in the wind direction which resulted in the yacht being turned towards the shore in order to prevent an unwanted gybe. The skipper realised that a planned gybe would be necessary to head back towards the open sea; however, this turn came too late to avoid running aground. Seven of the 11 other yachts in the race also headed inshore and, in similar circumstances to CV24, CV31 almost certainly grounded but did not stop and was able to continue the race.

Many more details are in the report

Quote

Digitised data from the yacht’s GPS, log, echo sounder and wind instruments was also available for display at remote Garmin units at each helm station (Figure 9). These remote displays could not be used as chart plotters but had multi-functioncapability to show any of this digital navigation data in di erent formats, includingsplit screens and plan displays for wind information. The remote displays had a shallow depth feature that included an audible alarm when crossing over the selected alarm depth setting. This feature was tested by MAIB sta on board CV23on 27 November 2017 (Figure 10). The helm remote displays were operated by crew aft of the mainsheet traveller, and could not be seen by crew in the cockpit(Figure 2).

 

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31 minutes ago, stief said:

More than half the fleet were caught out by the shift.

Many more details are in the report

 

Exactly a standing order for a pre determined depth is common sense. You see x metres on the screen during this watch call it out. I guess they were running a kite they had a mesh preventer up from memory. 

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27 minutes ago, SCANAS said:

Exactly a standing order for a pre determined depth is common sense. You see x metres on the screen during this watch call it out. I guess they were running a kite they had a mesh preventer up from memory. 

I'm wondering if footnote nine means depth wasn't adequately plotted and repeated, but haven't finished reading the full report

Quote
  1. 9  During the stopover in Cape Town, all 12 Clipper 70 yachts had the Garmin GPS Map plotters replaced withan upgraded unit, including di erent software for functions such as alarms and manoverboard procedure. No additional training was provided to skippers or crew for the new software. The installation of the ux gatecompass was part of this upgrade

Ouch

Quote

Passage monitoring on board CV24

The skipper had sole responsibility for the navigation of CV24. Paper charts were not in use and navigation of the yacht was managed using the Timezero system. There were no tracks, waypoints or danger areas set in the Timezero system and no depth sounder alarm set on any of the Garmin displays.

 

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I knew these boats were operated on a shoestring budget, what with crews having to perform the maintenance and all, but no paper charts? No visible depthfinder from the helm? No dedicated navigator?

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3 hours ago, Sapphire Girl said:

EA378586-5A5C-4696-83DC-F2D7EC33E12D.jpeg

It was clearly a design fault. If they didn't have that dangerous offset companionway they wouldn't get sand down below on starboard tack.

What are the shade cloth screens behind the helm for? Are they 'Customer catches'?

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4 hours ago, Sapphire Girl said:

EA378586-5A5C-4696-83DC-F2D7EC33E12D.jpeg

The problem started in port when the captain forgot to bend on any sails. It only got worse from there. 

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1 hour ago, SENDITBOYS said:

No dedicated navigator?

 

17 minutes ago, See Level said:

without a dedicated navigator?

Why the question? Skipper is the designated Navigator, just as the designated Navigator is the Skipper on Single Handed RTW race boats.

Rather that arrangement than a dentist from Yarmouth. The passengers also act as Nav assistants I think. Being caught on a lee shore with not enough room is not exactly a new occurance in the world of sailboats.

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Anyways before this report & prob in response to a death they now have an extra paid crew. Problem solved. 

IIRC this boat got scrapped? 

 

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1 hour ago, SENDITBOYS said:

I knew these boats were operated on a shoestring budget, what with crews having to perform the maintenance and all, but no paper charts? No visible depthfinder from the helm? No dedicated navigator?

That's not true. The boats are very well equipped, they are more small ship than yacht. This was human error, no one bothered to check their iPhone app!

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20 minutes ago, SCANAS said:

This was human error, no one bothered to check their iPhone app!

Find it quite amusing when people away from home/own boat pull out their smartphone saying that is all they use, they save on expensive marine electronics, everyone who doesn't are mad blah blah.

That priceless look when they find that;

a) Their particular phone requires a phone signal to enact GPS Assist function, and or

b) While having the App the map data for where they are located isn't loaded and requires a phone signal to download it.

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Undoubtedly the absence of a dedicated navigator may have contributed to this but from my understanding most Clipper skippers do have the punters assisting in the Nav and most are all over it. But on most commercial sailing vessels under 24 mts/200tons the master is both Navigator and Engineer, but naturally these tasks can be and are, delegated after training/assessment. But the skipper keeps a close eye on things because he/she is responsible. There is never a single reason for any marine incident. The skipper is ultimately a manager and so this is a management issue. 

 But all that aside, let he who has never made a navigational error, cast the first stone.

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Further to what Stief posted above

"Prior to the grounding, the two remote Garmin displays at the port helm position were set up as follows:

● The left-hand display was set to a plan view with cursors showing the direction of the true and apparent wind. It also displayed digital values for: true wind speed, true wind direction, apparent wind speed and apparent wind direction.

● The right-hand display had a three-way split screen option with digital values of COG, Speed over the Ground (SOG) and the velocity made good (VMG) downwind.

The radar was off and the depth information was not on display at the port helm station. These settings were reconstructed by MAIB staff on board CV23 on 27 November 2017"

That's just gotta be downright irresponsible, and bordering on negligence, by the Skipper. Also no navigational training by Clipper for any of the crew. Once again a bit irresponsible.

It also appears another Clipper almost beached itself as well. CV31. In fact they got closer to the beach than CV24. I can't recall that being mentioned before but I wasn't following the race as intently as the one before.

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7 minutes ago, LB 15 said:

Undoubtedly the absence of a dedicated navigator may have contributed to this but from my understanding most Clipper skippers do have the punters assisting in the Nav and most are all over it. But on most commercial sailing vessels under 24 mts/200tons the master is both Navigator and Engineer, but naturally these tasks can be and are, delegated after training/assessment. But the skipper keeps a close eye on things because he/she is responsible. There is never a single reason for any marine incident. The skipper is ultimately a manager and so this is a management issue. 

 But all that aside, let he who has never made a navigational error, cast the first stone.

LB the report, at 2.5 Role of Navigator,  mentions that two of the crew were nominated as Navigator however neither of these two crew members participated in passage planning and both were off watch prior to the grounding!!!

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2 minutes ago, albanyguy said:

LB the report, at 2.5 Role of Navigator,  mentions that two of the crew were nominated as Navigator however neither of these two crew members participated in passage planning and both were off watch prior to the grounding!!!

Exactly. Failure of  crew management. Not defending them but this grounding is a pretty isolated case and hindsight is a marvelous thing. Volvo boats with full time Pro's have done far more spectacular fuck ups. They have addressed this and I have examined a few guys and gals who were heading for the mates positions.  Hate to see someone crucified in the press because they made one error that may be due to decisions made further up his chain of command.. At the heart of this will lie the skipper's role. Stress and fatigue must play a role and Clipper have addressed this.

Shit happens and we learn from it. Fair touch, play on.

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2 hours ago, jack_sparrow said:

Find it quite amusing when people away from home/own boat pull out their smartphone saying that is all they use, they save on expensive marine electronics, everyone who doesn't are mad blah blah.

That priceless look when they find that;

a) Their particular phone requires a phone signal to enact GPS Assist function, and or

b) While having the App the map data for where they are located isn't loaded and requires a phone signal to download it.

My point is with the abundance of handheld GPS (phones) on board no one bothered to look at a chart. They seemed to have no issues taking pics after & posting to social media. 

You will also find Webb Chiles primary nav aid is an iPad - seems to work out just fine for him. 

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28 minutes ago, SCANAS said:

You will also find Webb Chiles primary nav aid is an iPad - seems to work out just fine for him

Scan like Chiles a lot of commercial airline pilots also use IPads. A trip back from the cockpit can be scary after seeing that.

However the difference between tablets and phones is chalk and cheese. First the App itself, either marine or aviation and secondly the GPS source. They use either external GPS dongles or connect wirelessly to a external GPS source on board. I think most tablets incl iPads even if a model that has GPS, it is only of the GPS Assist variety requiring a phone tower signal to initialise at least and then accuracy is an issue. Hence the use of an external GPS.

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3 hours ago, jack_sparrow said:

Find it quite amusing when people away from home/own boat pull out their smartphone saying that is all they use, they save on expensive marine electronics, everyone who doesn't are mad blah blah.

That priceless look when they find that;

a) Their particular phone requires a phone signal to enact GPS Assist function, and or

b) While having the App the map data for where they are located isn't loaded and requires a phone signal to download it.

They were still well within cell range

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33 minutes ago, Sapphire Girl said:

They were still well within cell range

They should have phoned a friend.

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From the beach side. Slangkop lighthouse can be seen on the extreme left. A village with lights on the right. Within cell coverage.

1221422C-6F27-4E33-89EF-C53B82A95498.jpeg

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They would have sailed past the lighthouse and the village but would not yet have Cape Point lighthouse in sight. That coastline is National Park so would be dark. But a glance at a chart would show it is there - it’s Africa! They had been changing course towards the coast for more than an hour.

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1 hour ago, jack_sparrow said:

Scan like Chiles a lot of commercial airline pilots also use IPads. A trip back from the cockpit can be scary after seeing that.

However the difference between tablets and phones is chalk and cheese. First the App itself, either marine or aviation and secondly the GPS source. They use either external GPS dongles or connect wirelessly to a external GPS source on board. I think most tablets incl iPads even if a model that has GPS, it is only of the GPS Assist variety requiring a phone tower signal to initialise at least and then accuracy is an issue. Hence the use of an external GPS.

Hi Jack, not sure what you mean by GPS Assist? Both my iPads have GPS receivers inbuilt which I used for a lap and 1/2 using iNavx and Navionics charts. Also my iPhone with the same software does not need a phone tower to get an accurate fix, just my eyes to which are "getting too old for this shit"

I met Webb in Cape town whilst doing my first lap, Complete nut job , bit like myself I guess.

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3 hours ago, LB 15 said:

 

Shit happens and we learn from it. Fair touch, play on.

We learned yesterday that you can’t trust a race comittee to have a finishing line where there are no rocks in the area boats need to get their kites down :( they moved it after this happened, but for us it was too late and the worlds is over and who knows how long it will take to repair the boat. We of course have navigation systems but it’s generally not in use for w/l racing. 

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1 hour ago, spyderpig said:

Hi Jack, not sure what you mean by GPS Assist? 

Sypder good on you for that 1 1/2 laps. I hope the 1/2 was voluntary/cumulated not forced :-)

The GPS recievers in mobile devices aren't near as sophisticated, have the same power as standalone recievers from a cold start, particularly if you have moved, device went to hibernite etc. A GPS to create your location needs to know the time and where in space the satellite is. From a cold start the reciever waits for each satelite to broadcast and then from that starts calculating away selecting in order the best signals. This process on the basic (read cheap) circuitary of a mobile GPS chip take close to 15 minutes until complete accuracy is certain.

To speed up this slow process, but which also reduces battery drain, most mobile device GPS chips go about calculating the future satelite position. They do this by recieving exact time and the location of phone tower(s) location(s) to roughly figure out satellite positions, then accelerating getting a satelite fix, at which point exact time and position data is retrieved. The use of cell towers to do this can also be supplemented using WiFi triangulation of your devices position.

This process is called Assisted GPS (AGPS) and can produce an accurate position within seconds of a mobile device being activated instead of waiting for the satelite grass to grow.

It is also not all done to benefit the user. It is an ideal platform to immediately push advertising or service information to your mobile device based upon knowing your exact position.

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34 minutes ago, jack_sparrow said:

Sypder good on you for that 1 1/2 laps. I hope the 1/2 was voluntary/cumulated not forced :-)

Voluntary ish, My wife is not fond of spending long periods at sea so turned back before going through the Panama canal and going to spend a couple of seasons in the Med / Cannaries / Northern Spain etc. 

You knowledge is encyclopedic Jack,  thanks for all the good info on the Volvo thread. Ooopps - drifting.

 

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1 hour ago, jack_sparrow said:

Sypder good on you for that 1 1/2 laps. I hope the 1/2 was voluntary/cumulated not forced :-)

The GPS recievers in mobile devices aren't near as sophisticated, have the same power as standalone recievers from a cold start, particularly if you have moved, device went to hibernite etc. A GPS to create your location needs to know the time and where in space the satellite is. From a cold start the reciever waits for each satelite to broadcast and then from that starts calculating away selecting in order the best signals. This process on the basic (read cheap) circuitary of a mobile GPS chip take close to 15 minutes until complete accuracy is certain.

To speed up this slow process, but which also reduces battery drain, most mobile device GPS chips go about calculating the future satelite position. They do this by recieving exact time and the location of phone tower(s) location(s) to roughly figure out satellite positions, then accelerating getting a satelite fix, at which point exact time and position data is retrieved. The use of cell towers to do this can also be supplemented using WiFi triangulation of your devices position.

This process is called Assisted GPS (AGPS) and can produce an accurate position within seconds of a mobile device being activated instead of waiting for the satelite grass to grow.

It is also not all done to benefit the user. It is an ideal platform to immediately push advertising or service information to your mobile device based upon knowing your exact position.

Time to update that blackberry 1 mate. 

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1 minute ago, SCANAS said:

Time to update that blackberry 1 mate. 

I don't have any doors small enough  to use it as a doorstop.

What a fuck up that was.. like Nokia two companys pissing their absolute market dominance up against the wall in just a few years. Even the text encryption Blackberry could offer now sits in a free Apps like WhatsApp.

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3 hours ago, NORBowGirl said:

We learned yesterday that you can’t trust a race comittee to have a finishing line where there are no rocks in the area

Nor you should have invoked the pissed rule and put them on the breathalyser. Those cartons they took aboard marked  Vodka weren't the race rules.

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5 hours ago, jack_sparrow said:

Maybe phoned the lighthouse up the track to ask why they suddenly turned the light down/off?

Hey Jack, someone runs aground and it's someone's fault.

Someone falls overboard and dies and it's "shit happens, they knew the risks".

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1 hour ago, jack_sparrow said:

I don't have any doors small enough  to use it as a doorstop.

What a fuck up that was.. like Nokia two companys pissing their absolute market dominance up against the wall in just a few years. Even the text encryption Blackberry could offer now sits in a free Apps like WhatsApp.

https://www.nokia.com/en_int/phones/nokia-3310

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5 minutes ago, jack_sparrow said:

Scan I think Nokia use the same spin merchants as Volvo does with the VOR.

Fuck Jack, did you work for Nokia too?

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Well. We can argue about how fast various GPS receivers acquire fix, but that never should be the cause of a perfectly good boat hitting a continent.  For over centuries a lot of ship managed to not hit the rock and presumably this is why the MAIB did the investigation instead of just shrugging it off as BAU or shit happens.

IMHO, while technical stuff, such as not being able to see the depth or the chartplotter at the helm may be a contributing factor, a prudent skipper and crew should take these factors into account in advance, always have the situational awareness and not do shit based on assumptions, especially when the rocks are near. So ultimately this is a screw up by the skipper and the crew, but not necessarily all the blame is on them  if they had not been provided with the proper training.

 

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31 minutes ago, random said:

Hey Jack, someone runs aground and it's someone's fault.

Someone falls overboard and dies and it's "shit happens, they knew the risks".

Randumb if only you had ever experienced the feeling of being actually "onboard". You would then change your monotonous tune.

IMG_20180331_200622.jpg.905b286823ab56001e7c18728184abf0.jpg

 

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1 hour ago, szigi said:

Well. We can argue about how fast various GPS receivers acquire fix, but that never should be the cause of a perfectly good boat hitting a continent. 

That GPS was just a bit of thread drift introduced by Scan about everyone on deck having a mobile phone.

The MAIB investigation is pretty clear. They knew exactly where they were albeit that information was not made available on a real screen on deck. That aspect of investigation and finding was quite bizzare. Bit like Leo and Kate on the bow of the Titanic not being given a MFD to negotiate icebergs.

Bottom line is the OP of this thread got it right and reinforced by others like LB etc about management. That post was:

16 hours ago, Sapphire Girl said:

They shouldn’t have got so close to the Coast in the first place.

The MAIB Report was actually pretty kind towards the Skipper and RO, I suspect because no injury to life despite being a commercial venture, then after/pre-enquiry the RO added a paid hand onto the boats after a death on the next leg and then to top it off the RO being a Knight of the Realm and a legend. It would be like killing Nelson...the guy who saved England from the Spanish, not the imprisoned blackfella with the crazy wife in SA.

It pays to be connected, drink gin and be a bit poncy is my guess if you run aground with punters on board. LB you need to round your vowels out and get a manservant as insurance in your trade.

The cost attached to this basic fuckup but then removing that beached 35 tonne  truck out of a National Park with scant access and without leaving a RKJ dinner plate behind and who payed/pays is another story.

 

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12 hours ago, LB 15 said:

Undoubtedly the absence of a dedicated navigator may have contributed to this but from my understanding most Clipper skippers do have the punters assisting in the Nav and most are all over it. But on most commercial sailing vessels under 24 mts/200tons the master is both Navigator and Engineer, but naturally these tasks can be and are, delegated after training/assessment. But the skipper keeps a close eye on things because he/she is responsible. There is never a single reason for any marine incident. The skipper is ultimately a manager and so this is a management issue. 

 But all that aside, let he who has never made a navigational error, cast the first stone.

Not one to speak the Queens English I have always wondered what a punter is?

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1 hour ago, woahboy said:

Not one to speak the Queens English I have always wondered what a punter is?

They are the Ukrainian hookers in high heels.

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Just now, NORBowGirl said:

They are the Ukrainian hookers in high heels.

Well I'll be. Learn something new every day. Thank You NBG.

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No, they are the normal ordinary (in a neutral way) people. 

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4 hours ago, woahboy said:

Not one to speak the Queens English I have always wondered what a punter is?

It is a term of endearment for a paying customer, commonly used in the Charter industry.  It comes from the same term used to describe someone who gambles, as in they pay their money and they take their chances. 

There was a legendary charter skipper around here who used to begin his safety briefing with 'right you punters, listen up'.

He was a consumate professional.

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2 hours ago, NORBowGirl said:

They are the Ukrainian hookers in high heels.

What if they are wearing flats?

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On 6/29/2018 at 2:17 AM, jack_sparrow said:

Find it quite amusing when people away from home/own boat pull out their smartphone saying that is all they use, they save on expensive marine electronics, everyone who doesn't are mad blah blah.

That priceless look when they find that;

a) Their particular phone requires a phone signal to enact GPS Assist function, and or

b) While having the App the map data for where they are located isn't loaded and requires a phone signal to download it.

Seen plenty of idiots lost in mountains and the moors etc relying on their iPhone. Darwin at work. 

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On 6/29/2018 at 1:31 PM, jack_sparrow said:

That GPS was just a bit of thread drift introduced by Scan about everyone on deck having a mobile phone.

The MAIB investigation is pretty clear. They knew exactly where they were albeit that information was not made available on a real screen on deck. That aspect of investigation and finding was quite bizzare. Bit like Leo and Kate on the bow of the Titanic not being given a MFD to negotiate icebergs.

Bottom line is the OP of this thread got it right and reinforced by others like LB etc about management. That post was:

The MAIB Report was actually pretty kind towards the Skipper and RO, I suspect because no injury to life despite being a commercial venture, then after/pre-enquiry the RO added a paid hand onto the boats after a death on the next leg and then to top it off the RO being a Knight of the Realm and a legend. It would be like killing Nelson...the guy who saved England from the Spanish, not the imprisoned blackfella with the crazy wife in SA.

It pays to be connected, drink gin and be a bit poncy is my guess if you run aground with punters on board. LB you need to round your vowels out and get a manservant as insurance in your trade.

The cost attached to this basic fuckup but then removing that beached 35 tonne  truck out of a National Park with scant access and without leaving a RKJ dinner plate behind and who payed/pays is another story.

 

Can someone please explain why RKJ is held in such esteem by people? 

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On 6/29/2018 at 7:29 PM, NORBowGirl said:

They are the Ukrainian hookers in high heels.

:lol: 

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On 6/30/2018 at 7:10 AM, LB 15 said:

What if they are wearing flats?

You only pay half price. 

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12 hours ago, mad said:

Can someone please explain why RKJ is held in such esteem by people? 

They are unaware it also stands for Randumb Knows Jackshit?

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1 hour ago, Ease the sheet. said:

He's got 3 initials? 

Thats pretty special. .......

He is a pompous arse. But fuck me the man has done some yachtin...

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On 6/29/2018 at 4:09 PM, LB 15 said:

It is a term of endearment for a paying customer, commonly used in the Charter industry.  It comes from the same term used to describe someone who gambles, as in they pay their money and they take their chances. 

There was a legendary charter skipper around here who used to begin his safety briefing with 'right you punters, listen up'.

He was a consumate professional.

Thank You, kind sir.

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On 6/29/2018 at 4:10 PM, LB 15 said:

What if they are wearing flats?

What good is a Ukrainian hooker in flats? 

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On 6/29/2018 at 2:59 AM, spyderpig said:

Hi Jack, not sure what you mean by GPS Assist? Both my iPads have GPS receivers inbuilt which I used for a lap and 1/2 using iNavx and Navionics charts. Also my iPhone with the same software does not need a phone tower to get an accurate fix, just my eyes to which are "getting too old for this shit"

I met Webb in Cape town whilst doing my first lap, Complete nut job , bit like myself I guess.

Quite right spyderpig.  Indeed, phones and tablets that have internal GPS (or have cell capability) do NOT require a cell tower to triangulate your location.  You can use the Navionics app to follow you just like a full-blown chartplotter would, no matter if you have cell or wifi reception.

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On 7/2/2018 at 5:05 AM, LB 15 said:

He is a pompous arse. But fuck me the man has done some yachtin...

Once described ‘as having a great skill in not knowing what the fuck is going on’ 

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4 hours ago, SailNDive said:

Quite right spyderpig.  Indeed, phones and tablets that have internal GPS (or have cell capability) do NOT require a cell tower to triangulate your location.  You can use the Navionics app to follow you just like a full-blown chartplotter would, no matter if you have cell or wifi reception.

Yes Navionics, candy crush and downloaded porn don't need a phone signal to work.

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Its amazing to me that, based on the chart with tracks on Page 7, every single one of the boats got MUCH closer to shore than the "10nm at night" requirement that Clipper Ventures supposedly included in standard operating procedures.

EVERY ONE!

MUCH CLOSER!

The most prudent gybed in 20m of water! Off that coast! We are not talking about the Solent, we are talking about Cape of Good Hope FFS.

Fucking crazy, irresponsible, the entire fleet.

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Requireing them to stand 10 miles of any lee shore at night also shows what amateurs the organisers are. How the fuck do you put something like that in the rules then sell this to the punters as a race?

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20 hours ago, SailNDive said:

Quite right spyderpig.  Indeed, phones and tablets that have internal GPS (or have cell capability) do NOT require a cell tower to triangulate your location.  You can use the Navionics app to follow you just like a full-blown chartplotter would, no matter if you have cell or wifi reception.

Cellular assist isn't a replacement for GPS, it is a way of getting the GPS to gain lock faster. By themselves the noddy GPS chips used in iPhones and iPads can get a location fix. But they are not swift at doing so. And in a lot of place GPS can be challenging - places phones get used a lot - like cities. So a helping hand is good to get GPS happening in a timely manner.

Once you have a lock, the GPS should remain pretty happy. But the power drain is never trivial, and the temptation to turn the unit off to preserve battery is ever present. So you end up needing to warm start the GPS again. High end GPS chipsets are pretty good at getting a lock from warm start very quickly. Many channels and some seriously slick algorithms for dealing with less than perfect reception. Your iPhone's chip isn't one of them. Use of things like cellular assist, or mapping the MAC addresses of all the WiFi points on the planet are a big win in getting a phone or tablet to lock quickly.  The test is to ensure your phone or tablet does not currently have a lock, is not in range of any cells or WiFi hot spots, and then see how long it takes to sort the location out. It will do it. Whether it will do it in the time you would really like it to do it is the question.

(the first ever iPhone didn't have GPS, and did only use cell locations. It was not bad really. You could typically get to within a few hundred metres, sometimes better. Not enough to navigate on the road with, and useless outside of cellular range. It is possible this early limitation has become a confused story over time.)

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I find the GPS in my iPad to have no performance difference with conventional marine GPS units.

So one can go on and on about theoretical differences,  but I have never yet noticed a time when my iPhone or iPad position was materially different from any other GPS aboard (Furuno and Raymarine).

And for absolute certain, the iPad and iPhone use an awful lot less energy.

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company risk assessments

Yup, a nice risk assessment sitting in a binder somewhere. That will keep you off the beach.

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