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Advice please for Yanmar Newb


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I’m going to start a new to me Yanmar sail drive for the first time. I’m slightly embarrassed to admit I’ve never done this before and I’m looking for any advice for things to do or not do. 
 

I’m assuming that I don’t need glow in the summer. The directions make a reference to not over cranking. 
 

Anything else to look out for? Is it otherwise just like starting a car?

Any wisdom is appreciated. 

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Starting is usually simple. 3/4 throttle, in neutral, and crank away.

But when you are done, pull the kill knob, wait for the engine to stop and buzz at you.

Then, and only then, turn the key to off. Otherwise you might need a new alternator.

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the "no over cranking" is so that you don't burn up your starter motor. 

make sure your battery is fully charge and up to the task. 

Make sure you have fuel and not water in your fuel separator!

 

just out of curiosity, which engine is it?

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Yes, if you overcrank you may fill the waterlift muffler, then the cylinders......

I've also had a 2YM15 for about a year now, seems to be a nice engine. Only concern so far is that it doesn't have oil pressure and water temp gauges, only warning lights. Apparently this can be rectified by replacing the switches with proper senders as the control panel will read them - a future job.

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Always check the engine oil level and top it off before starting, i.e., don't wait for it to show a quart low. Keep the oil at the full mark.

After starting always check that the sea water pump is functioning by looking for water being expelled out the exhaust.

When shifting the gearbox, only do so with the engine at minimum RPM (idle).

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5 hours ago, Fleetwood said:

Yes, if you overcrank you may fill the waterlift muffler, then the cylinders......

I've also had a 2YM15 for about a year now, seems to be a nice engine. Only concern so far is that it doesn't have oil pressure and water temp gauges, only warning lights. Apparently this can be rectified by replacing the switches with proper senders as the control panel will read them - a future job.

And not a big job at all.

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1 hour ago, DougH said:

After starting always check that the sea water pump is functioning by looking for water being expelled out the exhaust.

This , will save you a dollar or three .

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13 hours ago, ropetrick said:

Starting is usually simple. 3/4 throttle, in neutral, and crank away.

I don’t thing the “throttle” has any effect during cranking our Diesel engines. Typical injection pumps are, by design, at 100% fuel when cranking regardless of the control position. So the “throttle” setting is only effective after running. 

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Keep in mind the saildrive has it's own oil. They are sensative to the proper type and grade. The saildrive oil level is checked with the filler cap/dipstick sitting on top of the drive, not screwed in. 

You do not mention if it is a brand new motor, or new to you. If brand new there is a break in protocol, read your manual. If used and there is any question about recent maintence I would change motor and drive oil, raw water impeller, and all filters sooner rather than later, it is cheap insurance.

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12 minutes ago, Borracho said:

I don’t thing the “throttle” has any effect during cranking our Diesel engines. Typical injection pumps are, by design, at 100% fuel when cranking regardless of the control position. So the “throttle” setting is only effective after running. 

Then why does Yanmar say "full throttle" in the manual?

My 2GMF has a lot of trouble starting other than WOT.

So did my other 2GMF

So did my 3GMF

So did my YSM8

Full throttle till it lights then pull it back.

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20 minutes ago, Borracho said:

I don’t thing the “throttle” has any effect during cranking our Diesel engines. Typical injection pumps are, by design, at 100% fuel when cranking regardless of the control position. So the “throttle” setting is only effective after running. 

The manufacturer says give it some throttle, as does the guys at Mack boring. It certainly works better on my 3gm

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3 minutes ago, loneshark64 said:

The manufacturer says give it some throttle, as does the guys at Mack boring. It certainly works better on my 3gm

Correct. A diesel has no throttle. Most gasoline engines have that. A diesel has a fuel governor with a control lever. Yanmar says to set it at MEDIUM SPEED for normal starts. In cold weather set it at HIGH SPEED position but immediately set it to LOW SPEED after the engine has started. I find that a warmed up engine can be started with the control lever set at or near LOW SPEED.

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19 minutes ago, SloopJonB said:

Then why does Yanmar say "full throttle" in the manual?

My 2GMF has a lot of trouble starting other than WOT.

So did my other 2GMF

So did my 3GMF

So did my YSM8

Full throttle till it lights then pull it back.

Don’t know why they would advise that. It is not how the governors work. My manuals say the fuel rack is at full fuel in the start condition. So makes no difference while cranking. 

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1 minute ago, Borracho said:

My manuals say the fuel rack is at full fuel in the start condition. So makes no difference while cranking. 

That may be so for some makes/models diesel engines. That is definitely not the case for the Yanmar marine diesels I'm familiar with. As in the Yanmar will likely not even be able to start (first start of the day, especially in cool or cold weather) unless you set the fuel governor to medium or high.

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You'll get a feel for what speed position to set once you've started the engine a few times. My 2GM will start at idle speed in the summer or when it's already warm but needs full speed when it's -5C. I don't have glow plugs and I also need to set a fast idle after it's started (1200-1500 RPM) until it gets some heat into it when it's cold out.

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17 hours ago, ropetrick said:

Then, and only then, turn the key to off. Otherwise you might need a new alternator.

In my experience, this is incorrect.  Turning off the key kills the field, which kills the output of the alternator, leaving it in a "safe" condition.  Disconnecting a running alternator from the load (battery) is what kills the diodes, as the power then has nowhere to go and the voltage rises too high for the diodes. 

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My 4 cyl Yanmar prefers that I apply throttle when starting. Cold out?, give her, hot out?, half way throttle. As soon as it fires I back it down to idle and give it a minute to compose itself.

Yanmars want to come up to proper operating temperature for optimal performance so it's not the end of the world to give it a little extra before you put her into gear. It may take 15 minutes of running kind of hard to actually get to that OPTIMAL temperature. You can run it as less than optimal and that's ok, it's just not optimal.

Once you get her going, put some load on it and let her rip. All diesels prefer to work hard. So feed her what she wants. you need to get over 1500 rpm to kick in the alternator and before you shut it down it's a good idea to rev her up to 3000 to blow the carbon out before you shut it down.

Yanmars are awesome, but don't baby it, put the spurs to her.

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1 minute ago, jamhass said:

In my experience, this is incorrect.  Turning off the key kills the field, which kills the output of the alternator, leaving it in a "safe" condition.  Disconnecting a running alternator from the load (battery) is what kills the diodes, as the power then has nowhere to go and the voltage rises too high for the diodes. 

What ropetrick said is precisely what is in the manual. Shut down the engine, then turn off the key.

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1 hour ago, climenuts said:

You'll get a feel for what speed position to set once you've started the engine a few times. My 2GM will start at idle speed in the summer or when it's already warm but needs full speed when it's -5C. I don't have glow plugs and I also need to set a fast idle after it's started (1200-1500 RPM) until it gets some heat into it when it's cold out.

This.

When my 2GMF is hot it only takes a bump of the switch at idle to start - just the same as my digital injected cars.

Cold it takes full throttle and 4 or 5 seconds of cranking to light.

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If BRAND NEW - and if it has a mechanical kill cable: pull the cable. Crank for several seconds. Stop cranking. Push in cable. Then start. This gets some oil to bearings without any combustion loads. 

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4 hours ago, blunted said:

My 4 cyl Yanmar prefers that I apply throttle when starting. Cold out?, give her, hot out?, half way throttle. As soon as it fires I back it down to idle and give it a minute to compose itself.

Yanmars want to come up to proper operating temperature for optimal performance so it's not the end of the world to give it a little extra before you put her into gear. It may take 15 minutes of running kind of hard to actually get to that OPTIMAL temperature. You can run it as less than optimal and that's ok, it's just not optimal.

Once you get her going, put some load on it and let her rip. All diesels prefer to work hard. So feed her what she wants. you need to get over 1500 rpm to kick in the alternator and before you shut it down it's a good idea to rev her up to 3000 to blow the carbon out before you shut it down.

Yanmars are awesome, but don't baby it, put the spurs to her.

Haven't seen this in the above, but my mechanic says to run the engine up to full throttle under load and then calculate 80% of those max RPMs and that's your target running speed. 

Starting cold, we always give it 3/4 throttle and then promptly back off to a fast idle until smooth.  Then walk to the back of the boat and wait for the water to spurt out the tail pipe - every time.  Once warm, it will start at idle pretty much all day.  But check the exhaust, again.

The main thing is to check both your engine and saildrive lubricants and zincs regularly, and make sure to replace the sail drive and the prop zincs sooner than later.  

And go to school on the meaning of engine smoke and lubricant colors.  If you have saildrive lubricant that looks like chocolate milkshake, you are officially having a bad day.

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30 minutes ago, Left Shift said:

Haven't seen this in the above, but my mechanic says to run the engine up to full throttle under load and then calculate 80% of those max RPMs and that's your target running speed.

Or you could look in the manual and use what Yanmar recommends.

Your mechanics method does not factor in an incorrect prop or any of the other problems that can limit RPM - you'll just run at 80% of an incorrect RPM.

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7 minutes ago, SloopJonB said:

Or you could look in the manual and use what Yanmar recommends.

Your mechanics method does not factor in an incorrect prop or any of the other problems that can limit RPM - you'll just run at 80% of an incorrect RPM.

Well, yeah.  You do have to have the right prop.  I have had mechanics put feathering props together to the wrong setting and the engine couldn't get much above idle under load.  Weird sensation.  

Oddly enough, my mechanic's method and the Yanmar recommendation come within 50 rpm of each other.  For most situations, the 80% "rule" seems to work as a reasonable way to find a steady working load.  At least it seems to have worked over half a dozen different boats.  I must have the right prop on on all of those boats.

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15 hours ago, blunted said:

What ropetrick said is precisely what is in the manual. Shut down the engine, then turn off the key.

The reason the manual says that is that the warning lights on the engine panel (oil, temp, saildrive seal) don't operate if the key is turned off. The alternator load does not touch the wiring to the panel for obvious reasons, the idea that you bugger the alternator by switching the key off while the engine is running is a myth. If you don't believe me look at the wiring diagram:

wiring_eng_yanmar_original.jpg

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Yes, follow the wiring: on all stock Yanmar wiring looms, alt output goes direct to starter solenoid, where it is stacked along with the power power supply to to the ignition key and the power supply from the battery. So alt is always connected to batt. 

However, if you turn key off with engine running, a push button kill will not work, as it will have no power to send to solenoind.

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As as was noted earlier - if the engine is brand new, then that is a different deal.

Meanwhile if its a used engine from a boat you recently purchased...

#1. Go download the manual for the engine (and look at the serial plate on the motor itself, and while at it, the transmission) and don't rely on the broker or surveyor to tell you what you have.  Follow the manufactuer's instructions, and if needed - yes, a little extra open throttle then waiting for the starter to cool down also works.  If it does not start within ~10 serious tries with a bit of time in between then possibly something else is going on - like fuel vacuum in the fuel line if the tank is below the motor (which is commonly the case for a variety of reasons).

The above said, if the motor is not 'brand new' - after you have her purring and put a few hours on, be sure to:

#1. Change the oil & filters, maybe twice, and if the Yanmar has a secondary oil filter (little bit more of a chore) change that one with the last oil change.

#2. Change the coolant and be mindful about what coolant you use.

As others have asked - it is 'brand new' and if not any idea how many hours on it so far?

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Here is some information which hasn't been mentioned yet. I have a 3GM30fcv. It has a compression release lever for each calendar. Don't  know if the 2YM15 has this feature. When the battery is too low to start the engine, releasing 2 of the levers reduces the load on the battery and the engine will start on one cylinder. when it is running on one cylinder flip the compression release lever and the other cylinder will join in.  Releasing the compression is also useful at the beginning of the season before starting the engine for the first time to spin up the engine and get oil to all the bearing with out load.

 
Alternatively, if you  you have a house and a cranking battery put your battery switch in the "both" position which puts the house battery in parallel with the cranking battery to get extra cranking power. Don't forget to take the switch out of "both" position or the batteries will equalize and you will have two low battery. Also do not move the switch through "none" when the motor is running as this will blow the diodes in the alternator.
 
If you have a MaxProp feathering prop on your sail drive, after you have the sails up and are ready to turn off the engine, with the boat moving a at 3 knots or better, turn off the engine put the sail drive in neutral, wait 3 boat lengths for the prop to feather and shift into reverse to lock the shaft.
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