carbon tax....The issue is then that either:
1. Gas is too cheap, so people indulge in fuel-intensive activities because it doesn't cost much
2. Modern turbofan aircraft have become too efficient. They carry people a long way quickly on relatively small amounts of fuel. A DC-3 at 160 knots configured for 30 people is about 50 some SMPG. A modern turbofan is almost 4 times as fast and probably in the 70-90 SMG area.
To solve #1 you tax gas more and let people do what they will.
To solve #2 you need to hobble the airlines somehow. You could do something like make landing slots very expensive, make them fly slower - say make the 250 knot limit extend all the way to FL600, ration total tickets sold, or tax fuel specifically only for Part 121 Airlines and no one else.
The issue with all the "hobble the airlines" ideas is the airlines will quite rightly complain why THEY got to be the ones to take the hit. Why not tax Winnebagos or make giant pick up trucks illegal or something.