Pink Floyd - History

boomer

Super Anarchist
16,398
1,370
PNW
Missed the opening video, and it appears it may have been worthy and well done. Pink Floyd wasn't really on my radar of groups I listened to in the late 60's. In the service, after A school, I was to busy the first year out and about, checking out the sights, getting a mercy fuck twice a month after the 1st and 15th paydays(if available - hoping not to get the clap - got lucky and never did, by staying away from the more popular whorehouses). As long as we're on the subject of Pink Floyd - how about a little "trip".

After getting in Mobil Construction Battalion 5 things got way busy. You see Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 5 had one last major job to do after five successive deployments to Vietnam, the construction of The Rose Garden - officially known as Palace Dog - Palace Dog was a United States covert operation to support the Royal Laotian Government in its military operations during the Laotian Civil War portion of the Vietnam War. Palace Dog, Project 404, and the Raven FACs principal task was the supply of forward air controllers for close air support to the Royal Lao Army (RLA).


NMCB 5 had been the last battalion to serve in Vietnam and the conflict was continuing to wind down. However, NMCB-5 was to serve as the Pacific Alert Battalion in support of the Third Marine Amphibious Force while working on a host of jobs during the upcoming deployment to the Western Pacific. Many of the men of FIVE were just "boots" and had never been initiated into the fight side of the Seabees. Should a crisis arise and the Marines are thrust into a trouble spot, the men of FIVE-"boots" as well as veterans-must be ready to defend themselves and any construction they do for the Marines or other U.S. forces.
 



To prepare for this eventuality, the Seabees of FIVE underwent seven weeks of military training. There were classroom subjects such as combat formations; infantry defensive tactics; nomenclature of the M-16 rifle, .45 caliber pistol, M-60 machine gun and 12 gauge shotgun; camouflage; and map reading.
 



After classes, the men went out into the field at nearby Broome Ranch to receive training in crew-served weapons-including the use of the 3.5-inch rocket launcher, 106mm recoil-less rifle, M-60 machine gun, 81mm mortar and M-79 grenade launcher.
 


Next, the battalion spent 10 days at Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base where the men fired the M-16 rifle on a 200-yard range. A total of 92 per cent of the men shooting fired qualifying scores, a new record on the Navy training range.
 



Highlight of military training was an overnight combat exercise in the Camp Pendleton hills. The FIVE Seabees set up a command post on a ridgeline, dug foxholes and successfully defended their positions against simulated attack by "aggressors.
 



The men of FIVE said good-byes to their loved ones and reluctantly climbed aboard airplanes at Pt. Mugu for the flights to West Pac. The deployment was started.
 



Detail Falcon remained in California to do demolition work on several structures at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, to make way for the construction of a trailer park. This detail was later expected to journey to Japan to work on several projects.
 



The main body of the 500-man battalion arrived at Camp Shjelds, Okinawa, just in time for Reversion Day on May 15. The Japanese flag was raised alongside the Stars and Stripes as the government of Okinawa was returned to Japanese jurisdiction after 27 years of American administration since the end of Wor1d War II.
 



Detail Hawk went on to the Philippines to put the finishing touches on the house moving project that Detail Clydesdale had started the previous deployment and to build a rinse rack to wash planes at Cubi Point Naval Air Station.
 



Detail Raven traveled on to Taiwan and began rehabing a barracks at the Headquarters Support Activity, Taipei. On Okinawa, the main body started the final stages of work on the new officers club and BOQ. The FIVE Seabees also began constructing an addition to the Crash Station at the Marine Corps Air Facility, Futema. a perimeter security road around Marine Corps Ammo Supply Point Two, erecting a five-mile long fence around it and installing a water distribution system.
 



The men had barely unpacked their bags and settled into their new jobs throughout the Western Pacific when the call came to "mount out." Within 48 hours, the battalion's 100-man Air Detachment had staged nearly 5 million pounds of equipment and materials at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, for shipment to an undisclosed site, which became the Royal Thai Air Base Nam Phong - known to the Seabees and Marines as the Rose Garden. It was an "all hands" operation, with many men working an day and all night to successfully meet the mount out requirements.
 



The first flights of C-14 I jet cargo planes began carrying the men of NMCB-5's Air Detachment, their equipment and materials from Okinawa. The Air Detachment's destination was classified and rumors ran rampant throughout the battalion. When we were told that we were not going to Vietnam, everyone heaved a big sigh of relief. - Then Bravo company was called to supply 12 volunteers for Detail Buford, who'd be assigned to the LSD Vernon Country going to Cam Ranh Bay, South Vietnam to dissemble and prepare for shipment to Diego Garcia, the concrete batch plant left their by Seabees for construction of the Cam Ranh Bay Base and Air Station. Then load pumps, piping and building material left, to be used for humanitarian building projects in New Guinea and islands in the Truk Atoll. That sounded like a lot of movement and fun, so I was one of the first to volunteer.



 
Royal Thai Air Base Nam Phong
 
The USS Vernon County began the year before picking us up in dry dock number one at Yokosuka, Japan, at the naval ship repair facility. The Vernon County took on a decidedly different appearance, because, instead of the standard U.S. Navy haze gray, Vernon County had been painted white overall in preparation for her next deployment. When we boarded, they told us the ship was painted white because of the heat so close to the equator, but history now says that she was painted white because India was very sensitive to military activity in that area and being white made her appear to be a hospital ship, or on a humanitarian mission. We were actually a war ship because of our 3 gun mounts of 3" and the 50 cals.

The final preparations were made for Vernon County to become, by necessity, totally self-sufficient, far from the U.S. Navy's logistic, maintenance, and support areas. After taking on part of the necessary stores and equipment, before proceeding to Okinawa to pick us up before, then she sailed for Cam Rahn Bay, where we disassembled and loaded the Concrete Batch Plant and other materials and equipment. Then proceeding on her way to and bound for remote Diego Garcia, in the Chagos Archipelago in the British Indian Ocean Territory, with an interim stop at Singapore.

Vernon County ultimately reached Diego Garcia offloading the concrete batch plant and much of her heavy equipment to prepare a staging site for the reception of the many tons of supplies and equipment needed to build the station.

As the days passed, the atoll began to change; the ship rode higher in the water as equipment was unloaded. Temperatures on deck averaged 122 degrees Fahrenheit (50 degrees Celsius) between 10:00 and 15:00 hours each day; "tropical" duty hours of 0400 to 1400 soon commenced aboard the ship. The men of Underwater Demolition Team 12 and a platoon of Seabees removed underwater obstacles, installed buoys, marked anchorages and cleared land. After the USS Vernon County finished unloading, made two additional voyages to and from Diego Garcia, picking up more men and supplies at Singapore, Cocos Island, and Mauritius.

During the last few days of her deployment to Diego Garcia, Vernon County was repainted her standard haze gray, a sure sign that the time had come for the ship to sail away from the atoll upon which she had established a base camp and the beginnings of a communication station.




The rest of our list of little well jobs for our Detail Buford, was fairly straight-forward -   a series of hops to Australia then to the former Port Moresby Flying Boat Base in southern New Guinea, where we offloaded several hundred feet of hand operated drills, pumps, generators, piping,and materials - then to find water, drill, install wells and a few pump stations. We then took a Seaplane to Buna, New Guinea, to meet the LST Vernon Country again, which had brought other material we had loaded - several hundred feet more of drill, pumps, piping, other material and furnishings, for more wells and pump houses - air conditioners, desks, refrigerators, and other furniture along with windows, doors and corrugated tin roofs from the buildings left by the left by US forces at Cam Ranh Bay.

I'd never heard of Buna, New Guinea before, but apparently a area where a months long battle was fought in the area during WW II. It so was humid and wet there, us Seabees did our work barefooted, rather then risk getting severe trench foot. Then on to Truk Atoll, where more of the same, drill fairly shallow wells, build pump houses pumps, piping and building materials was unloaded, with the rest headed to the other islands of Truk Atoll to be distributed. After this Vernon Country took us to Japan, and the ageing LST retired shortly thereafter. The old LST had a busy three years, before being retired. The map below, was her stops with another Detail from another Battalion - NMCB 40 the year before as I recall.

Then, via the great circle route to Elmendorf AFB our detail boarded a Air Force MAC C-141, then McCord AFB, then Point Mugo NAS where we bussed back to Port Hueneme, CA. I then requested an island sea duty command, and was offered two choices Guentamano Bay or NavAirSta Adak, Ak - I choose Adak. I was hoping my next couple years would be a a bit more relaxed, then my first year. I arrived on Adak island on January 10, 1973, right after a blizzard.

After arriving at NavAirSta Adak, had to do two weeks of remote cold weather indoctrination. in the upper barracks above the chow hall. Then got assigned to the first Seabee barracks below the chow hall, and fortunately on the first floor. More then half the Seabees on this floor were short-timers, with several months to half a year left to go in the service.  The common refrain when asked how long before they left this isolated island, was "however many days, and a hook(Half a day).

The majority of these short-timers had previously been deployed in a Battalion, detail or Seabee Team in SE Asia, so consequently their uniforms unkempt, needed haircuts and in Zumwalt's Navy, a prevalence of beards and some dedicated party animals who ate, drank beer or booze, and smoked pot and hash - and endlessly played Pink Floyd's "The Dark Side of the Moon". So I became quite detached from the Pink Floyd psychedelic music often putting my head-phones on and listened to what I considered normal rock and went to sleep with headphones on to good old rock. It wasn't till years later that I could appreciate Pink Floyd for their psychedelic music.

I remember guys coming to Adak after being on Diego Garcia, and their horror stories. If you were one of them,  they didn't bitch and gripe about the remote Naval Air Station and Communication Station, they were of the few that seemed to enjoy Adak.

However Diego Garcia, was more similar to a penal colony then today's vacation resort.  Down there - The guys would talk about partying ever night, the daytime heat, many just out of high school - becoming young men from their life and death adventures on Diego and later on Adak. Most drank warm beer and smoked pot on Diego Garcia. On Deigo Garcia two other Seabees and my self didn't drink and sometimes looked after and tended those who drank way to much, just to make sure they didn't hurt themselves or others. At that time - most all the single guys hated both places, but I believe it changed all of them, most guys off of Diego Garcia could handle most anything thrown at them on Adak.

The few things they all talked about - was long hard hours in the sun during the day and then party just about every night. Drugs and booze was cheap and available. I stopped drinking warm beer after Camp Shield on Okinawa, and wasn't into smoking pot then while on active duty. Though I did smoke it a few times in Port Heneme off base, and once back home on leave in the PNW - but for me in my youth, smoking pot wasn't something I did as a habit - preferring to hike, climb and sail, if the commands had sailboats. To this very day I still cannot believe the Federal Government and US Navy turned a blind eye and sent them to Bangkok for R&R. Some said they thought it was part of a government experiment studying how young men can survive addictions and sexual diseases.

Back to Pink Floyd - driving down to see my daughter and SIL, and the America's Cup - what was that 2013, with my son - who was on a Pink Floyd journey, with most of the CDs he brought, being Pink Floyd's work. I had to request to listen to something other the Pink Floyd for the return to the PNW. If I ever have to listen to Pink Floyd again......

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boomer

Super Anarchist
16,398
1,370
PNW
@boomer, are you aiming to get your book to publication before @Point Breakmanages to get his printed?
No just practicing re-editing an old story - it still needs a lot of descriptive, time and places work.

For your evening entertainment - Here's another story that needs some work:

A volunteer mission to Great Sitkin Island during the spring of '74. An Air Force C-118 (DC-6) with a reservist crew, clipped the edge of the crater and crashed just before Christmas of '73. The last thing Adak traffic controllers in the tower heard was, "Adak turn your runway lights back on." There were 10 aboard and no survivors.

Our mission was to find a suitable location near the crash site to install a bronze memorial. In this expedition took the tug over to the island with a party of twelve and us enlisted made camp in one of the old WW II Quonset's that was in good shape, while the officers pitched there tents outside and slept on the ground. We were even able to find old bunks, mattresses, a decent table and chairs for our meals. I was surprised how well preserved the buildings were on the island compared to other islands in the Andreanofs. There were also supplies and stacks of building materials left on the island that were in good shape. The dispensary still had medical supplies in some of the cabinets. It looked as if the US Navy deserted the island posthaste.

There were a few plane wrecks around the island at lower elevations, one I recall was a B-24 that was in good shape. Some time ago, I read the B-24 was hauled off the island for restoration in the summer of 1995. What was amazing about the island was how tall the flowers grew. I have pictures of us in a sea of flowers shoulder high and taller, which I have yet to locate. Must have been well fertilized from the ash. Recently prep was done for WW II cleanup of cantaminats on Great Sitkin.

Cleanup of WW II contaminants on Great SItkin.

We made an attempt to recon a safe route to the top of the mountain, but were thwarted by a low ceiling of clouds. Later Commander Sam Strong, who was surveying the old WW II tank farm with a younger officer, discussed in the above article called in a CH-46 Sea Knight for support. When the CH-46 arrived Sam and another officer were some distance away, and they came on the run. The "old man" was in good shape, and beat that younger officer back to camp by a country mile. Note he's still on the run in one of the pics below.

We had ventured up the valley that day checking for an appropriate approach to climbing Sitkin. The thick vegetation made for some tough going with vegetation up to our necks, not the easy hiking as on the other islands in the Rat and the Andreanof Islands, probably due to volcanic ash. There was also a cloud cover from just above the valley floor and on up for a couple thousand feet, so we couldn't get a visual for the best approach either. So it was either scout a route after the clouds dissipated or get a helo from the island to come over and either give us a lift to the top of Sitkin which was above the clouds, or see if we could locate an easier way to climb the mountain from above. The Commander called the tug which was anchored offshore to contact the base to send a CH-46.

We went back to camp to wait for the helo. While we were waiting for the CH-46 Sea Stallion we were exploring around the area of the old WW II base. We heard the helo coming and everyone hurried back to camp. The Commander was probably the furthest away with another officer who wasn't quite in as good a shape as the Commander.

Anyway, after we took care of business that day, the number one conversation in our cabin that night, before talking about our exploits for the day.... was that the "old man" was in hella good shape. The "old mans" ears must have been ringing, because just as we were finishing our steak, mashed potatoes, gravy and salad, he showed up. We were just cracking a bottle of Harvey's Bristol Cream Sherry and having a few beers, so we offered him a glass of Sherry. He was sipping his Sherry while looking about our humble abode and commented, "you guys do it up right." We smiled and nodded our heads in agreement - "So do you Sir.".

Sam and his wife Helga M Strong who was my boss, my last two years on Adak, who are in their 80's now, had a getaway home in Lake Tahoe and Sam still skied several times a week throughout the winter, till they sold the cabin a couple years ago. BTW - my wife Linda's trunk in that picture has been to a lot of places, dang near to Timbuktu and back a couple times over.

1st pic Great Sitkin Volcano in the far distance -  from Mount Moffet on Adak

2nd pic Great Sitkin Island on approach to runway 5/23 at NavAirSta Adak

3rd pic The Navy tug that took us to Great Sitkin

4th pic Our CH-46 Sea Stallion has arrived for our ascent to the Great SItkin Volcano crater - after checking out the WW II Fuel Tanker farm, Commander Sam Strong on the run to our rally up point.

5th pic The CH-46 awaits

6th Old Seabee mate and Construction Electrician 2nd class Robert "Tag" McDermott

7the pic The Navy tug from the CH-46

8th pic WW II Greek steamship (converted Liberty Ship) Ekaterini G was lost October 26, 1965 on Great Sitkin Island about 20 nautical miles from Adak.


The US Navy's 205' Abnaki class Fleet Ocean Tug, the USS Takwakoni (ATF-114), took the Liberty Steamship Ekaterini G.(formerly Josiah G. Holland) in tow after the Greek flagged vessel lost her propeller 600 miles south of Adak, AK. During the tow, the ships anchor chain, which was part of the tow line parted in 85 knot storm winds. Two tugs from Adak were dispatched to assist. However by the time they arrived the ship was aground in the heavy surf. Her bottom holed with some plating torn off,plating and decks buckled and fractured. One crewman was lost and two critically injured.. Helicopters from NAS Adak were dispatched to hoist remaining crewmen to safety. The remaining crewmen were rescued, with the two critical injured who were transferred to the Adak Hospital, then on to a public health hospital in Anchorage. Salvage attempts were abandoned; The ship was declared a constructive total loss and remains aground on the northwestern side of the island.
 
9th pic Shipwreck - converted Liberty Ship Ekaterini G
 
10th pic - A small part of the Great Sitkin tank farm from the CH-46
 
11th pic - The Great Sitkin Sand Bay Forward Refueling Station at the end of WW II or shortly thereafter.

Sand Bay, on the southern end of Great Sitkin Island, about 21 miles northeast of Adak, was established as a naval advance fueling station on May 15, 1943. Facilities for this activity and for a net depot were constructed by the Seabees. This included accommodations for 680 officers and men; provisions for storage of general supplies, net materials, and liquid fuels; small- and large-craft piers.

Housing was provided in 46 quonset huts. Messing facilities were set up in six temporary buildings. Recreational facilities included a theater for 550 men, a recreation hall, and a library.

Storage facilities consisted of 89,200 cubic feet of cold storage space in two temporary buildings; 18,800 square feet of dry-storage space in two buildings; 64,550 square feet of general-storage space in 11 buildings; and 25,710 square feet of space for construction and maintenance materials in two buildings. Fuel-oil storage required twenty-two 10,000-barrel tanks, three 6000-barrel tanks, and one 15,000-barrel tank, all of which were set in excavations with dike berms. Diesel-oil and aviation-gasoline storage was in sixteen 6000-barrel steel tanks. Ordnance was stored in 19 magazines.

Service facilities for small craft at the net depot were centered around the 40-by-630-foot, semi-permanent pier. Four moorings were provided at the fueling, station, where a 60-by-800-foot pier was furnished with eight 8-inch and eight 6-inch fuel lines and a fresh-water outlet.

Administration offices were placed in five temporary buildings which had a total floor space of 6090 square feet. The fleet post office occupied two quonset huts. Radio transmitting and receiving stations were placed in separate buildings. The hospital, which consisted of six standard quonset huts, was located at the fueling station. Station maintenance shops were established in nine quonsets which had a total floor area of 8690 square feet. Diesel-electric units supplied power for the entire station.

All work was accomplished by Seabees, with the major portion performed by the 52nd Battalion, which had made the initial landing. Later, small detachments were assigned from NOB Adak to carry on the work. On V-J day, Sand Bay was still functioning as a naval fueling station and net depot.
12th pic - Recent image of former NavAirSta Adak


Building of Great Sitkin Sand Bay Forward Refueling Station by Seabee Maintenance Unit 510

PDF - 52nd Naval Construction Battalion

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Tunnel Rat

Super Anarchist
3,147
467
No just practicing re-editing an old story - it still needs a lot of descriptive, time and places work.

For your evening entertainment - Here's another story that needs some work:

A volunteer mission to Great Sitkin Island during the spring of '74. An Air Force C-118 (DC-6) with a reservist crew, clipped the edge of the crater and crashed just before Christmas of '73. The last thing Adak traffic controllers in the tower heard was, "Adak turn your runway lights back on." There were 10 aboard and no survivors.

Our mission was to find a suitable location near the crash site to install a bronze memorial. In this expedition took the tug over to the island with a party of twelve and us enlisted made camp in one of the old WW II Quonset's that was in good shape, while the officers pitched there tents outside and slept on the ground. We were even able to find old bunks, mattresses, a decent table and chairs for our meals. I was surprised how well preserved the buildings were on the island compared to other islands in the Andreanofs. There were also supplies and stacks of building materials left on the island that were in good shape. The dispensary still had medical supplies in some of the cabinets. It looked as if the US Navy deserted the island posthaste.

There were a few plane wrecks around the island at lower elevations, one I recall was a B-24 that was in good shape. Some time ago, I read the B-24 was hauled off the island for restoration in the summer of 1995. What was amazing about the island was how tall the flowers grew. I have pictures of us in a sea of flowers shoulder high and taller, which I have yet to locate. Must have been well fertilized from the ash. Recently prep was done for WW II cleanup of cantaminats on Great Sitkin.

Cleanup of WW II contaminants on Great SItkin.

We made an attempt to recon a safe route to the top of the mountain, but were thwarted by a low ceiling of clouds. Later Commander Sam Strong, who was surveying the old WW II tank farm with a younger officer, discussed in the above article called in a CH-46 Sea Knight for support. When the CH-46 arrived Sam and another officer were some distance away, and they came on the run. The "old man" was in good shape, and beat that younger officer back to camp by a country mile. Note he's still on the run in one of the pics below.

We had ventured up the valley that day checking for an appropriate approach to climbing Sitkin. The thick vegetation made for some tough going with vegetation up to our necks, not the easy hiking as on the other islands in the Rat and the Andreanof Islands, probably due to volcanic ash. There was also a cloud cover from just above the valley floor and on up for a couple thousand feet, so we couldn't get a visual for the best approach either. So it was either scout a route after the clouds dissipated or get a helo from the island to come over and either give us a lift to the top of Sitkin which was above the clouds, or see if we could locate an easier way to climb the mountain from above. The Commander called the tug which was anchored offshore to contact the base to send a CH-46.

We went back to camp to wait for the helo. While we were waiting for the CH-46 Sea Stallion we were exploring around the area of the old WW II base. We heard the helo coming and everyone hurried back to camp. The Commander was probably the furthest away with another officer who wasn't quite in as good a shape as the Commander.

Anyway, after we took care of business that day, the number one conversation in our cabin that night, before talking about our exploits for the day.... was that the "old man" was in hella good shape. The "old mans" ears must have been ringing, because just as we were finishing our steak, mashed potatoes, gravy and salad, he showed up. We were just cracking a bottle of Harvey's Bristol Cream Sherry and having a few beers, so we offered him a glass of Sherry. He was sipping his Sherry while looking about our humble abode and commented, "you guys do it up right." We smiled and nodded our heads in agreement - "So do you Sir.".

Sam and his wife Helga M Strong who was my boss, my last two years on Adak, who are in their 80's now, had a getaway home in Lake Tahoe and Sam still skied several times a week throughout the winter, till they sold the cabin a couple years ago. BTW - my wife Linda's trunk in that picture has been to a lot of places, dang near to Timbuktu and back a couple times over.

1st pic Great Sitkin Volcano in the far distance -  from Mount Moffet on Adak

2nd pic Great Sitkin Island on approach to runway 5/23 at NavAirSta Adak

3rd pic The Navy tug that took us to Great Sitkin

4th pic Our CH-46 Sea Stallion has arrived for our ascent to the Great SItkin Volcano crater - after checking out the WW II Fuel Tanker farm, Commander Sam Strong on the run to our rally up point.

5th pic The CH-46 awaits

6th Old Seabee mate and Construction Electrician 2nd class Robert "Tag" McDermott

7the pic The Navy tug from the CH-46

8th pic WW II Greek steamship (converted Liberty Ship) Ekaterini G was lost October 26, 1965 on Great Sitkin Island about 20 nautical miles from Adak.


The US Navy's 205' Abnaki class Fleet Ocean Tug, the USS Takwakoni (ATF-114), took the Liberty Steamship Ekaterini G.(formerly Josiah G. Holland) in tow after the Greek flagged vessel lost her propeller 600 miles south of Adak, AK. During the tow, the ships anchor chain, which was part of the tow line parted in 85 knot storm winds. Two tugs from Adak were dispatched to assist. However by the time they arrived the ship was aground in the heavy surf. Her bottom holed with some plating torn off,plating and decks buckled and fractured. One crewman was lost and two critically injured.. Helicopters from NAS Adak were dispatched to hoist remaining crewmen to safety. The remaining crewmen were rescued, with the two critical injured who were transferred to the Adak Hospital, then on to a public health hospital in Anchorage. Salvage attempts were abandoned; The ship was declared a constructive total loss and remains aground on the northwestern side of the island.
 
9th pic Shipwreck - converted Liberty Ship Ekaterini G
 
10th pic - A small part of the Great Sitkin tank farm from the CH-46
 
11th pic - The Great Sitkin Sand Bay Forward Refueling Station at the end of WW II or shortly thereafter.
 
12th pic - Recent image of former NavAirSta Adak


Building of Great Sitkin Sand Bay Forward Refueling Station by Seabee Maintenance Unit 510

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So, did you get to the top?  Don't leave us hanging!

 

boomer

Super Anarchist
16,398
1,370
PNW
So, did you get to the top?  Don't leave us hanging!
Yes we flew over and around the crater, but the pilots we wary of landing. So all was for naught. Several more attempts were made that summer, without success. Finally the brother of the pilot gave the OK to place the bronze memorial plaque. One of the CH-46 crews took the plaque, then while hoovering close to the crash site, unceremoniously  dropped the plaque out of the CH-46 onto the edge of the crater on the NE side.

The crash of the Douglas R6D-1 (DC-6) from ASN

Headlines and newspaper articles of the crash.

An earlier 1959 crash of a Douglas C-54B-1-DC Skymaster on Great Sitkin Island

An even earlier B-24D-10-CO Liberator crash landed on Great Sitkin island due to bad weather and low fuel, January 18, 1943. The wreck was recovered in 1995, and was partially restored at Hill Air Force Base Aerospace Museum

B-24 LIBERATOR/41-23908 at Hill Air Force Base Aerospace Museum

No major eruption has occurred at Great Sitkin since 1974 of which I observed and photographed, but not worth publishing, till I clean the slides.

Recent sesmic activity the past year at Great Sitkin, then a minor eruption, now a new dome is forming in the center of the old crater.

A few telephoto compression shots of Great Sitkin. One taken above the Old Robert Housing underneath the slope, out of the image, Sweepers Cove and the Navy's Red, White & Blue sheds. The other image is from the west end of runway 5/23.

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Great Sitkin runway.jpg

 
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Tunnel Rat

Super Anarchist
3,147
467
Yes we flew over and around the crater, but the pilots we wary of landing. So all was for naught. Several more attempts were made that summer, without success. Finally the brother of the pilot gave the OK to place the bronze memorial plaque. One of the CH-46 crews took the plaque, then while hoovering close to the crash site, unceremoniously  dropped the plaque out of the CH-46 onto the edge of the crater on the NE side.

The crash of the Douglas R6D-1 (DC-6) from ASN

Headlines and newspaper articles of the crash.

An earlier 1959 crash of a Douglas C-54B-1-DC Skymaster on Great Sitkin Island

An even earlier B-24D-10-CO Liberator crash landed on Great Sitkin island due to bad weather and low fuel, January 18, 1943. The wreck was recovered in 1995, and was partially restored at Hill Air Force Base Aerospace Museum

B-24 LIBERATOR/41-23908 at Hill Air Force Base Aerospace Museum

A few telephoto compression shots of Great Sitkin. One taken above the Old Robert Housing underneath the slope, out of the image, Sweepers Cove and the Navy's Red, White & Blue sheds. The other image is from the west end of runway 5/23.

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A pragmatic solution.

Not sure if you are interested, but a quick google search dug up this geological report from 1946.  I'm a geologist so this type of stuff fascinates me.

https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1028b/report.pdf

 

boomer

Super Anarchist
16,398
1,370
PNW
A pragmatic solution.

Not sure if you are interested, but a quick google search dug up this geological report from 1946.  I'm a geologist so this type of stuff fascinates me.

https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1028b/report.pdf
Yes I reviewed the Geology reports of all the Andeanof Islands in the Adak - ROICC office, with one of my hiking and climbing partners Seabee Civil Engineer/Engineering Aide Thomas Sheckles who worked in Public Works Engineering alongside the ROICC office. Tom arrived a month after I, and along with Seabee Utilitiesman Gary Hall and Seabee Builder Roland Sikorski, we were the only Seabees who ventured out every weekend - wind, rain, sleet or snow. Hiking most the northern and central island.

Fairly soon we took over the ground Search and Rescue, because we learned the island better then most. Tom and Gary did a year on Adak. I signed up for a second year along with Roland Sikorski. I'd met my wife at the same time, and though I ignored all her advances, which was more my attempting to avoid a relationship, because I didn't plan on getting married till I was much older. I finally succumbed to having a relationship, the following winter. Though we were still hiking, climbing and hunting together, and venturing further afield to the south end of the island - he was put off by my relationship with my wife. I found Ski who owned a construction company about 10 years ago in Oklahoma, we communicated for a couple years, but once he retired about six years ago, he went into a funk - and refuses to communicate with anyone - Tom, John or myself.

He came down to my house, the day he was leaving along with Engineering Aide John Grindeland another friend who was from Fargo, ND - John who'd never sailed, sailed with me in the Navy, we sailed at the US Navy Western Regionals at Treasure Island, in Rhodes 19s. Our crew another Engineering Aide Stuart Larson was from Billings, MT. I'd been advertising for crew with no takers. Finally I asked John and Stuart, if they crewed with me in races against ComSta and we won, we'd get a ticket to San Francisco and the Western Regionals - a week of practice and a week of racing. We won and got the Navy invite, and the Navy invited the ComSta crew too. We placed mostly mid-fleet the first couple days, then up with the leaders for two days, and the third day till the last race, which we won. I still communicate with John and Stuart.

Ski, John and Stuart left by March of '75, but other hiker and hunter types were already requesting my service to guide for Ptarmigan, Duck, Geese and Caribou or just guided hikes - and met lifelong friends whom I still communicate with in Robert "Tag" McDermott and Thomas Flicek. Tom Jeys whom I also hunted and built a sailboat with , did communicate till a few years ago - till his wife a religious fanatic thought I might be corrupting him - so now we don't communicate.

Anyway all these guys I hiked, climbed and hunted with - besides give pointers, I also showed them the ancient villages of the Aleut and the huge midden piles. There were old village locations all over the island, and now archeologists are understanding Adak was the center of the Aleutian Universe. So besides following the land, the geology and the volcanics, I also followed and tried to learn about the ancient people as I researched the known previous historical writings, and the archeological expeditions to the Aleutians .

#1 L-R Myself, Gary Hall, Tom Sheckles

#2 Roland SIkorski filled his water flask - Husky Pass in the far distance

#3 Tom Sheckles holding WW II Punji Stake

#4 Roland Sikorski getting a shot of rum on Husky Pass

#5 Roland Sikorski showing his rendition of running water at our cabin -  in a fast approaching blizzard white out

#6 Super skier Stuart Larson

#7  Roland Sikorski attracting one of those pesky white outs - again!

#8 Tag McDermott right after a white out - descending Mount Moffet, we saw the White out fast approaching and hustled about 500 yds and jumped in this ravine to guide our descent down the mountain, then the sun came out, but not for long, by the time we descended to the road alongside the runway, clouds rolled in and it began to rain.

#9 Smoke em if you go em - Stuart and Ski take a break - on a Ptarmigan hunt near White Alice - note the shotgun handles on platform.

#10 Hike back to the base from Unulga Bight in Expedition Harbor with Tom Jeys and Tom Flicek - Unulga Bight is the location of a former 2000 year old Aleut village from pre-history before the Russian occupation.

#11 Climb up to Husky Pass

#12 Tom Flicek at Husky Pass

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boomer

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My final duty station in the service while in the Seabees was at Naval Air Station Adak, far out in the Aleutians in the Andeanof Islands. More then a few whom were stationed there, were ill-suited for the weather conditions at this remote base, and would self confine in their barracks or homes only venturing out for work activities, or inside sports and activities at the bases indoor facilities.

However those I hung with didn't want the weather or remoteness of the Naval Air Station, to limit our outside activities, choosing to hike, climb, snowshoe, cross-country ski, go boating, along with fishing and hunting, with our weekend home base being a small cabin Roland Sikorski and I rebuilt, and kept stocked with food stocks, beer and liquor. I still also keep in touch with Gary Hall, Tom Sheckels, Stewart Larsen, Thomas Flicek, Robert Mcdermott, Tom Jeys, John Grindeland, Carrol Sloan, Hans Vang, Rickey Sexton and others from those heady days, surprisingly all are still alive and still stay in touch with most.

One thing we all had in common was despite the remoteness, we enjoyed the outdoors, but knew we had to be prepared for changing weather conditions. If you didn't like the weather, just wait half an hour or so, because often the weather would change in one day from wind blown rain to overcast to sunny to overcast to windblown rain or windblown snow which developed into Whiteout blizzards.

Another thing that many who hiked around the island noticed were the large depressions, left from the dugout sod homes of pre-contact native Aleuts. Mostly these pre-contact native villages would be along shores, with escape portages to nearby bays if needed, and in hiking about the island it wasn't hard to stumble on these former villages, with archeological village finds at over 250 village locations around the island and her bays and inlets, with another 35+ in the uplands of the island. When I'd point them out to hiking mates, some agreed that they were ancient village sites, while others said, how come they weren't referenced in our indoctrination week when first arriving on the island.

So I set out to learn more about these ancient people, via our US Navy ROICC office, at our base library, the inter-library loan service and buying the few available books on the history.

As said above; In hiking about Adak, one notices large holes and depressions from half a dozen or more to many of these large holes and depressions left by their ancient dugout and sod abodes called "barabara". These were the locations of the Ancient Aleut villages, known by these people from that period before Russian conquest and occupation as Unangas and the Sugpiaq. The name Aleut derives from the Russian; the people refer to themselves as the Unangax̂ - Unangas and the Sugpiaq. Aleut: æli.uːt - Russian: Алеу́ты : Aleut'y or pronounced by the natives as "al-yoot" - who are usually known in the Aleut language as Unangax̂ - Унаңан : plural - "people" or Unangan : singular.

A little known fact was, the high number of Aleut Villages located on Adak. Adak and Atka were basically the center of the Aleut culture, with Aleuts spread out east and west up and down the Aleutian Chain. At the bottom of this post is a PDF with a list of the historic sites on all the islands of the Aleutians. Adak had far more villages then any other island or even a combination of Islands. Adak Island had been the center of Aleut culture and the home to Aleut peoples since ancient times.

There were approx. 16,000 Aleuts before the Russians arrived, though some historical accounts say the population was upwards of 25,000. By 1820 less then 3000 survived, by the end of the 19th century they numbered only about 2,000.

Ancient Aleut villages were situated on the seashore near fresh water, with a good landing for boats and in a position safe from surprise attack. Many of the camps also had an alternate escape route, usually in another cove, bay or across a spit of land. Village placement in such locations persisted over the long term, as did many other cultural characteristics.

Traditional Aleut villages were usually composed of related families that lived in extended family households in well-insulated, semisubterranean homes. Kinship was reckoned through the mother’s line. A chief, generally a seasoned and talented hunter, might govern several villages or an entire island. His rule, however, was based on his wisdom, experience, and ability to build consensus rather than on raw power.

The Aleut constructed partially underground houses called barabara. The barabaras keep occupants dry from the frequent rains, warm at all times, and snugly sheltered from the high winds common to the area. Aleuts traditionally built the houses by digging an oblong square pit in the ground, with the larger measuring 50 by 20 feet - with the largest shoreside long houses at over 300' - however most dwellings were relatively small, generally oval-shaped structures that measured about 20 to 26 feet long and 10 to 13 feet wide. Excavations several feet deep and sometimes lined with rocks on the walls were roofed over with beams made from driftwood and long whale bones, such as those from the lower jaws, or mandibles. Over this framework, smaller pieces of wood and bone, grass, and, finally, a layer of living sod completed the structure, so that from the outside a house appeared like a small grassy hill. Side windows were absent. Entry was made via a covered entryway and trench; though in some entries were made through an opening in the roof, from which a notched log ladder descended to the central floor area. Large houses could have had multiple openings in their roofs to provide additional light and air circulation.

Inside these precontact houses, families had their personal use areas around the immediate inside of the walls. These were separated from each other with woven grass mats. The central floor area was a communal activity area; in some houses, small sub-floor pits were dug for storage of food and other materials. Inside benches were placed along the sides, with a hearth in the middle. The bedrooms were at the back of the lodge, opposite the entrance.

With the primary focus of their subsistence economy on resources of the sea and coastline, it is obvious why Unangax̂ placed the vast majority of their villages and seasonal camps as close to the ocean as was feasible. Favorable locations were those that afforded safe access to the sea, a fresh water stream, and nearby dependable food resources. Additional consideration was given to the proximity of defensive locales, such as steep-sided offshore islets, which served as refuges in times of warfare.

In optimal places Unangax̂ villages were sometimes quite large and probably occupied year-round, at least by some of their residents. In addition to such large communities, Unangax̂ also maintained smaller, resource-specific camps where individuals, families, or work groups would go at those times of year when resources there were available. For example, Unangax̂ might travel to a locale having a rich salmon stream, but few other food resources, during the summer months that salmon are running. Also, over thousands of years of use by Unangax̂, a single settlement location might have been at certain times a seasonal camp and at other times a year-round community, its changing use depending on Unangax̂ adaptations to fluctuations in food resources.

As in all Alaska Native cultures, two essential features of the Unangax̂ subsistence economy were cooperation and sharing. Obtaining certain resources required that people work together. Netting fish along the shore, for example, could not be done alone, nor could halibut fishing, where hauling in a large fish from a skin boat could only be done when men in two kayak-style baidarkas stabilized themselves with their paddles. Many other hunting, fishing, and gathering pursuits were undoubtedly undertaken in groups for a variety of reasons, including safety, learning, and friendship.

Sharing of resources was also absolutely indispensable for Unangax̂ survival. Beyond the obvious reasons for giving food to certain people (infants, the sick, and the elderly), Unangax shared with one another for food security. For example, because there were no guarantees that a particular hunter would be successful, it would be to his and his family’s benefit if a successful hunter shared his catch with him. The successful hunter, in turn, knew that he, too, would be taken care of someday when (not if) he came home empty-handed. In short, Unangax̂ shared to reduce the uncertainties that are associated with many subsistence endeavors. Sharing of food also was a means of dividing the often substantial work required to process fish and game. In some cases, if food were not shared, it would spoil before it could be eaten or properly stored for future use. It was in the context of multi-family households that most food sharing likely took place.

The Aleut survived by hunting and gathering. They fished for salmon, crabs, shellfish, and cod, as well as harvesting sea mammals such as seal, walrus and whales. The fish and sea animals were processed in a variety of ways: dried, smoked or roasted. Berries were dried. They were also processed as alutiqqutigaq - a mixture of berries, fat and fish. The boiled skin and blubber of a whale was a delicacy, as was walrus.

The Aleut people developed in one of the harshest climates in the world, and learned to create and protect warmth. Both men and women wore parkas that extended below the knees. The women wore the skin of seal or sea-otter, and the men wore bird skin parkas, the feathers turned in or out depending on the weather. When the men were hunting on the water, they wore waterproof parkas made from seal or sea-lion guts, or the entrails of bear, walrus, or whales. Parkas had a hood that could be cinched, as could the wrist openings, so water could not get in. Men wore breeches made from the esophageal skin of seals. Children wore parkas made of downy eagle skin with tanned bird skin caps. They called these parkas, kameikas.

Sea-lions, harbor seals, and the sea otters are the most abundant marine mammals. The men brought home the skins and prepared them by soaking them in urine and stretching them. The women undertook the sewing. Preparation of the gut for clothing involved several steps. The prepared intestines were turned inside out. A bone knife was used to remove the muscle tissue and fat from the walls of the intestine. The gut was cut and stretched, and fastened to stakes to dry. It was then cut and sewn to make waterproof parkas, bags, and other receptacles. On some hunting trips, the men would take several women with them. They would catch birds and prepare the carcasses and feathers for future use. They caught Puffins, Lunda Cirrhata, Fratercula Corniculata, Guillemots, and Cephus & Murres.

It took 40 skins of tufted puffin and 60 skins of horned puffin to make one parka. A woman would need a year for all the labor to make one parka. Each lasted two years with proper care. All parkas were decorated with bird feathers, beard bristles of seal and sea-lion, beaks of sea parrots, bird claws, sea otter fur, dyed leather, and caribou hair sewn in the seams.

Women made needles from the wingbones of seabirds. They made thread from the sinews of different animals and fish guts. A thin strip of seal intestine could also be used, twisted to form a thread. The women grew their thumbnail extra long and sharpened it. They could split threads to make them as fine as a hair. They used vermilion paint, hematite, the ink bag of the octopus, and the root of grass to color the threads.

The interior regions of the Aleutian Islands provided little in terms of natural resources for the Aleutian people. They collected stones for weapons, tools, stoves or lamps. They collected and dried grasses for their woven baskets. For everything else, the Aleuts had learned to use the fish and mammals they caught and processed to satisfy their needs.

In order to hunt sea mammals and to travel between islands, the Aleuts became experts of sailing and navigation. While hunting, they used small watercraft called baidarkas. For regular travel, they used their large baidaras.

The baidara was a large, open, walrus-skin-covered boat. Aleut families used it when traveling among the islands. It was also used to transport goods for trade, and warriors took them to battle.

The baidarka (small skin boat) was a small boat covered in sea lion skin. It was developed and used for hunting because of its sturdiness and maneuverability. The Aleut baidarka resembles that of a Yup'ik kayak, but it is hydro-dynamically sleeker and faster. They made the baidarka for one or two persons only. The deck was made with a sturdy chamber, the sides of the craft were nearly vertical and the bottom was rounded. Most one-man baidarkas were about 16 feet feet long and 20 inches wide, whereas a two-man was on average about 20 feet long and 24 inches wide. It was from the baidarka that Aleut men would stand on the water to hunt from the sea.

Cruising between the islands, the Aleuts learned to catch the seventh wave once in the ocean, which is the largest wave in a wave set, and by fore and back paddling would ride the large wave for miles over great distances. If they let this wave get away from them, all they had to do was wait for the next seventh wave, while paddling at brisk enough pace to catch the next seventh wave.

The Aleutian Islands by Alaska Geographic has a truthfully frank and candid chapter on the Russian occupation and later American occupation of the Aleutians. In one of the chapters is the story of Aleut young men racing a supply steamer from one island to the next port stop. They challenged the Captain to a race, betting $50, the Captain declined the bet, saying he couldn't take their money - so they pulled out another $50 and bet $100. The Captain realizing how serious the young men were, accepted the bet and asked his purser to hold the bet monies.

The coal fired tramp steamer was capable of cruising at about 8 knots and could top out a little over 9 knots, and departing the harbor quickly pulled ahead of the baidarkas. However once the race was offshore and upon the sea, the baidarkas caught the seventh wave and started to reel in the tramp steamer and eventually passed the steamer, arriving at the next port well ahead of the steamer. The young men waited on the dock for the steamer to arrive, and then collected their winnings from the surprised Captain and purser. As a side note, Aleut seal hunters, yearly paddled from the Aleutians to Prince William Sound to Fort Ross north of San Francisco, to hunt seal. At Fort Ross are displays, documenting this annual seal hunt back in the day, and the voyages of the Aleuts to Fort Ross.

In all of Alaska, it was the Unangax region that experienced the earliest contact with foreigners. In 1741, Vitus Bering and Alexei Chirikov ventured eastward in two ships from Kamchatka, eager to establish the geographic relationship between Asia and North America. Following the return of their crews to Russia, fur hunters began sailing to the Aleutian Islands in pursuit of sea otters, foxes, fur seals, and other valuable fur-bearers. Over second half of the eighteenth century, Russian crews sailed ever farther eastward, expanding their colonial reach to the central Aleutian Islands by around 1750 and to the eastern Aleutians by the 1760s.

The early Russian period was a devastating time for Unangax. By 1800, little more than 50 years after first Russian contact, the Unangax population had been reduced, to about 2,500 people. Battles between Unangax and Russians, Russian atrocities, forced Unangax labor, and introduced diseases all took their toll, and no part of traditional Unangax culture was left unchanged. In the realm of subsistence, many traditional activities continued through this time, but some important shifts took place. Because many men were forced to work for fur-hunting companies in the region, women and children took on increasing responsibilities for providing their families with foods and resources.

With population loss came far fewer occupied settlements and the consolidation and relocation of many villages. By the end of the Russian era in 1867, only approximately 17 Unangax communities remained, a number that, with some fluctuation, declined until today. At the same time, social and religious changes were also imposed. The earlier matrilineal kinship system fell apart. Traditional leadership structures were used by Russian colonizers for their own purposes, with Unangax leaders soon finding themselves serving in the often difficult role of middlemen between their own people and the dominant Russian economic interests. Hand in hand with these changes came a new religion, Russian Orthodoxy. By the later eighteenth century, even before the first Russian Orthodox priests had arrived from Russia, Unangax were being baptized into the church by Russian laymen, and Russian Orthodoxy quickly became the sole religion of the region.

Achievements and accomplishments made during the Russian era were sometimes positive. For example, some Unangax became literate in both Russian and Unangax; doctors brought smallpox vaccines and other medicines; schools were opened; and some Unangax became shipbuilders, navigators, and priests.

Nevertheless, after thousands of years of successful adaptation to their region, Unangax experienced all of these changes in a very short time. Further, the changes occurred in a context of overwhelming Unangax population loss and of Russian exploitation both of Unangax themselves and of the natural resources of their region. Within just a few decades of the first Russian arrival, Unangax were a subjugated population with essentially no real control over the main direction of their lives.

ln the first fifty years of Russian control, Aleuts indeed died from introduced diseases - however slaughter of Aleuts as a reprisal by the Russians could get extreme and out of hand, also there were local island wars resisting colonizers, malnutrition, privation caused by the transport of able bodied hunters away from their families and villages to hunt sea mammals for the Russians and assimilation led to their decline as well.

The first Russian explorers/traders/hunters went to the Aleutians, the relationships were poor, and they only improved somewhat under the Russian America Company and Baranov. They essentially enslaved the native Aleuts, often sending all the males out to hunt sea otter for their pelts, while the Russians settled into the Aleut villages, making themselves at home. If the men refused to hunt for the Russians, food supplies, structures, and villages were destroyed.

As an example of the depths to which the relationships fell, there are is a report that one of the Russians lined up front to back a whole group of Aleuts and fired a musket at them, simply to see how many could be penetrated by a single ball. Small Russian settlements were eventually created - and they were the site of significant Russian/Aleut warfare, with heavy casualties on both sides.

The Aleut also fared poorly under the rule of their Russian masters. At first they were not paid at all. They were drugged into service with vodka - that put them in a frenzy. So the Russians used violence, with the worst of being bayoneted and bludgeoned into obedience. These methods failing, wives and children were seized by the Russians and held in camp as hostages to guarantee a big hunt. The Aleut wore clothing made of otter fur when the Russians met them. After the Russians conquered the Aleut and required the Aleut to hand over all otter skins the Aleut were reduced to wearing hair - sealskin parkas which had previously been their slaves clothing.The Aleut population declined nearly as precipitously as the otter population.

Essentially, though, the Russians at first were not interested in settling, so there were never very many Russians throughout the Aleutians and Alaska as a whole. Some references note that there were never more than about 1000 Russians in all of Russian America. Much of the work, fighting, etc. done on behalf of the Russian American Company was done by Aleuts, who were either paid or coerced into carrying out these roles. The relationships were variable, and at one time or another, nearly all the Russian settlements were attacked, and most were destroyed at one time or another. However, many of the Russians took native wives, and their offspring began to take a significant role in the colony.

During the time I was there, between 1/10/73-5/10/76, the total list of identified permanent or seasonal camps identified had grown to 87 different camp sites or villages, and the list grew to over 125 locations in the 1980s, and grew again with more sites identified in the '90s and the '00s and has doubled to over 250 sites on Adak alone. About 35 of the later finds were upland - most the previous villages found were located close to the seashore. A few burial caves were also discovered in the most early assessments in the 1870s, one at Camel Cove and the other West Island in the Bay of Islands. The village at Unalga Bight was typical of the Aleut Villages at the time - BTW, there is another small camp or village NW of the Unalga Bight site on the small peninsula, about a mile away with nine depressions that have been identified as former underground houses (barabaras).

The first thing one notes in Volume #2 Chapter listings, of this PDF of historical Aleut sites from 1976, is how many more sites Adak had then any other island in the Aleutians, including Atka (only Amchitka had as many sites as Adak in 1976 - but only because every inch of Amchitka was assessed by the Atomic Energy Commision before the underground nuclear tests - but Adak has far surpassed that today, for the most identified sites of any island in the Aleutians). It would appear that Adak was indeed the center of the Aleut culture, or more Aleuts came and lived on Adak then any other island. Scroll down to PDF Volume #2 - page #216 or copy page #305 to begin reading the audits from each of the Adak sites..

Volume #2 - Historic Aleutian Sites

Volume #1 - Historic Aleutian Sites

Map showing the locations of some of the larger ancient  villages, but not all the villages on Adak and in the Aleutians and up the Kenai Peninsula and the Alaska mainland.

Interactive map showing most modern as well as WW II historical locations.  If switching to satellite imagery, the Bing Satellite imagery works better then the Google Satellite in this interactive map.

US Geological Survey Map of Kanaga, Adak, Kagalaska, Little Tanaga and Great Sitkin Islands

The following is a condensed version of “Unangax̂: Coastal People of Far Southwestern Alaska

Epilogue - It should be noted that after the US acquired Alaska, the native tribes were rarely treated better. The Alaskan native policy was to build schools and educate the native children 180° away from their heritage, coined "Kill the Indian, save the man". Consequently the native tribes under US rule didn't fair much better, till about 1971 when Alaska natives won there case and the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was established and US had to repay back $20 million in exchange for requested lands.

They also asked for 10% of federal mineral lease revenue, including oil. With major petroleum dollars on the line, pressure mounted to achieve a definitive legislative resolution at the federal level. In 1971, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was signed into law by President Nixon. It abrogated Native claims to aboriginal lands except those that are the subject of the law. In return, Natives retained up to 44 million acres of land and were paid $963 million. The land and money were to be divided among regional, urban, and village tribal corporations established under the law, often recognizing existing leadership.

In 1971, barely one million acres of land in Alaska were in private hands. ANCSA, together with section 6 of Alaska Statehood Act, which the new act allowed to come to fruition, affected ownership to about 148.5 million acres of land in Alaska once wholly controlled by the federal government. That is larger by 6 million acres than the combined areas of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia.

When the bill passed in 1971, it included provisions that had never before been attempted in previous United States settlements with Native Americans. The newly passed Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act created twelve Native regional economic development corporations. Each corporation was associated with a specific region of Alaska and the Natives who had traditionally lived there. This innovative approach to native settlements engaged the tribes in corporate capitalism.

The idea originated with the AFN, who believed that the Natives would have to become a part of the capitalist system in order to survive. As stockholders in these corporations, the Natives could earn some income and stay in their traditional villages. If the corporations were managed properly, they could make profits that would enable individuals to stay, rather than having to leave Native villages to find better work. This was intended to help preserve Native culture.





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Mid

Blues Rule
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Pink Floyd Put Bickering Aside to Finally Announce ‘Animals’ Reissue​

Animals 2018 Remix, long-delayed by liner notes argument between former band mates, arrives starting Sept. 16

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‘Animals 2018 Remix’ cover

 

Mid

Blues Rule
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Using A Great Day For Freedom as the B-side of the new Pink Floyd single, Hey Hey, Rise Up seemed like an obvious and relevant choice.

And David has, for some time, wanted to record a simpler more direct version of the song.

So here it is, with a newly edited video taken from a Pulse rehearsal during Pink Floyd’s two-week run at Earl’s Court, London, in 1994.

The recording, using the original drums and bass by Nick and David, has keyboards by Rick and backing vocals by Claudia, Sam and Durga taken from the Pulse rehearsals.

New piano, Prophet 5 synthesiser and Hammond are played by David, as on the original demo.

 

Virgulino Ferreira

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-- edit --

Haha, @Windward posted at the same time! :)
 

Fakenews

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-- edit --

Haha, @Windward posted at the same time! :)
Heard him interviewed by Smerconish. The guy is a real piece of work…
 

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